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[ The sole right of translation into English rests with Scott, Greenvjood d; Son] 


* • ' A. ^ 


Having been engaged uninterruptedly for a series of 
years in the manufacture of varnishes, pigments and 
coloured printing inks, I may well feel impelled, without 
presumption, to write a book upon these subjects, the 
more so as literature is somewhat deficient with regard 
to them. 

My book, in addition to distinct information with 
regard to linseed oil, the chief raw material, its purifica- 
tion and bleaching for making varnishes and pigments, 
contains short dissertations on the theory of drying oil 
and of the pigments that can be used with it, and the 
chief adulterations. I have thought that any descrip- 
tion of pigment manufacture, with the exception of 
lampblack, to which I have devoted a special chapter, 
would be superfluous, as excellent and copious books 
on the subject have appeared. 

Attention has been chiefly given to the manufacture 
of pigments, their mixing and grinding, and to the 
manufacture of printers' varnishes and coloured inks, 
including all the latest patented products. The section 
dealing with artists' colours is quite new and has 
appeared in no other work of this kind. I trust this 
part of my work will meet with a good reception in 
trade circles, and will establish my reputation as an 
expert in matters concerning this special industry. 

334270 L. E. ANDi5:s. 

Vienna, 1889. 




I. Introduction 1 


Extraction by Pressure 4 

Eirtraction by Solvents ....... 5 

Properties 7 

Adulterations and tests for same 9 

III. Poppy Oil . . 13 

IV. Mechanical Purification op Linseed Oil— 

Purification by stocking 15 

Rieck's Machine 16 

Cataract Machine 17 

Ure's Oil Filter 18 

Upward Oil Filter 19 

Oil Refining Kettle 21 

V. Chemical Purification of Linseed Oil— 

Combret's Apparatus 25 

Vli Bleachino Linseed Oil— 

Sun Bleaching 28 

Peroxide Bleaching 29 

Sulphuric Acid Bleaching 30 

Sulphurous Acid Bleaching 30 

Bleaching with Sulphurous Acid to Kdrting's Apparatus . 30 
VII. Oxidizing Agents for Boiling Linseed Oil— 

New Driers : Linoleates 36 

Manganous Linoleate 36 

Soluble Lead and Manganese Preparations . ... 37 

Introduction of Driers 38 

VIII. Theory of Oil Boiling . 40 

IX, Manufacture of. Boiled Oil— 

Boiling over the open fire or with steam . . . .43 

Zwieger* 8 Process . . .... . 46 

Lehmann's Superheater . ... . . . 46 



Andres' Process . . . • 48 

Walton's Process . . . . . . . . 48 

Vincent's Process 48 

Schrader & Dumeke's Ozone Process 49 

Electrical Process of Muthel and Liitke .... 50 

Zimmermann & Holzwich's Apparatus .... 54 

Process of D.R.P. 12825 56 

X. Adultbrations op Boilbd Oil 61 

XI. Chinese Drying Oil and other Speoialitibs— 

Neumann's Cement Oil 69 

Carbolic Oil 70 

TarVarmsh , . . 70 

XII. Pigments for House and Artistic Painting and Inks— 

Hue, Body and Fastness 72 

Antimony Colours 74 

Arsenic Colours 74 

Barium Colours 74 

Lead Colours 75 

Cadmium Colours 76 

Chrome Colours 76 

Iron Colours .77 

Cobalt Colours 78 

Copper Colours . . . . ' 78 

Manganese Colours 79 

Mercury Colours 79 

Zinc Colours 80 

Carmine 80 

Lakes 80 

Indigo 81 

Frankfort Black 81 

Ivory Black 81 

XIII. Pigments for Printers' Black Inks— 

Thenius* Oven for making Lampblack from Oil . . . 85 

Oven for Asphalt and Pitch 86 

Oven for Rosin, Pitch and Ceresine . . . . - . 87 

Preparation of Real Lampblack 89 

Apparatus for Use with Oil 93 

Dreyer's Apparatus 96 

Tighe's Process 108 

Chemical Manufacture of Lampblack 109 

Calcining Lampblack 110 

XIV. Substitutes for Lampblack— 

Black from Tar 113 

Tannin Black 115 




.' :XV, Maphin^by for Qoloub GaiNDiNa and Rubbing— 

Pug.MiU . . ... . . 117 

.Bonner Ball Mill. ........ 117 

Disijitegrator .... . . . , , . . 120 

Centrifugal Sifting and Winnowing Machine . . . 123 

Sieving and Mixing Machine . . . . . 124 

XVI. Machines for Mixing -Pigments with the Vehicle— 

. Quack's Universal Machine 125 

, Weimer & Pfleiderer's Machine ..... . . . 127 

. Lehniann.'8 Machine 129 

XVII, Paint Mills— 

, Ordinary. Machine . . 131 

. Ordinary, Machine Improved with Air Pressure . . . 132 

. Plate Machines 133 

. Roller Machines .134 

XVIIl, Manufacture of Bouse Oil Paints — 

Requirements asked for in a Paint 136 

. Choice, Mixing and Rubbing-up Paints . . . . 137 

. Whitelead Paints 140 

Zinc White Paints 140 

,Zina Grey Paints .140 

Yellow Paints 140 

, Red Paints 141 

, Green Paints . . . . . 141 

Blue Paints 142 

Brown Paints 142 

.Black Paints 142 

- Hugoulin's Process , 143 

Weathernresistirig Wall Paint 144 

. Universal Artists' Colours 145 

Grunzweig's Oil Paint 147 

. To make Oil Paints resist High Temperatures . . . 147 

. Glasenapp's Black Paint . 147 

. Vehicles and Binders for. Pigments . . . . . 148 

- Substitute for. Boiled Oil . . . . . '. .148 
. BruchhoWs Weather-resisting Paint . . . 149 
. KallkoUth . . . . . .... . . . 149 

XIX. Ship Paints— 

. Schnitger's Paint for Hulls of Ships . . . , . 154 
Other AntifouUng Paints . . . . . . .155 

. Paints for Iron Ships . . - 155 

XX. Luminous Paint— ... 

. White Luminous Paint . ' . ♦ . . . i . 156 
Red Luminous Paint . . . . ... .161 




Orange Luminous Paint 161 

Yellow Luminous Paint 161 

Green Luminous Paint 162 

Violet Luminous Paint 162 

Grey Luminous Paint 162 

Yellowish-brown Luminous Paint 162 

XXI. Artists' Colours— 

Whites 166 

Yellows 165 

Reds 165 

Browns 165 

Blues 165 

Greens 165 

Blacks 166 

Schnitger's Oil Paints 168 

The Mussini Colours 174 

The Normal Colours of the German Society for Promoting 

Rational Painting 176 

Detection of Cotton Oil in Oil Paints 180 

XXII. Printers' Inks: Vbhiclbs— 

Andres' Boiling Apparatus 188 

Boiling Process 190 

Boiled Oil with Rosin 192 

Rosin Oil Vehicles 193 

Weak Boiled Linseed Oil Vehicle . . . . .193 

Medium Linseed Oil Vehicle 194 

Strong Linseed Oil Vehicle 194 

Weak Raw Boiled Linseed Oil Vehicle .... 194 

Strong Raw Boiled Linseed Oil Vehicle .... 194 

Composition Vbhiclbs 194 

XXIII. Printers' Inks : Pigments and Manufactubb— 

Mixing the Lampblack with thb Vbhiolb .... 197 

Recipes for Printing Inks 197 

Inks for Rotary Presses 198 

Inks for Rapid Process 198 

Daily Paper Inks 199 

Book Inks 199 

Illustration Inks 199 

Brackenbusch's Impbovbmbnts 199 

Dry Printing Inks 200 

Soft Printing Inks . . , 200 

Jobbing Inks 200 

Gunthbr's Black Printing Ink 200 

Artus' Printing Ink 202 



ROsL's Printing Ink 202 

Black Printing Ink prom Coal Tar 208 

Schmidt's Black Printing and Stamping Ink ... 204 

Black Printing and Stamping Ink of Eirchbr & Ednbr . 206 

Black Printing and Stamping Inks with Iron . . . 206 

Thbnius* Blaok Printing Ink 206 

INDBX 208 



The great technical progress that has been made in every 
direction has naturally made itself felt in the manufacture of 
pigments for all purposes. This has been especially the 
case during the last forty years. 

Before that time the industry was in a very primitive 
state. Pigments were rubbed up by hand on a glass or 
stone plate by means of a muUer. This method certainly 
yielded finely divided colours, but the output per man was 
so small that in large factories more hands were employed 
in grinding the colours than in making them. Artists^ too, 
looked upon the labour of grinding their own colours as a 
most important necessity. In this way only were they 
always able to use fresh pigments, and were not obliged to 
struggle with a medium which through long keeping had 
become immanageable. In view of the fact that artists use 
a comparatively small amount of pigment, they were prob- 
ably quite right to take this trouble at the period, but with 
house-painters and others who use large quantities the case 
was very different. With the increase of demand the pig- 
ment-makers found their stone and muller method utterly 
inadequate to cope with requirements, and the invention and 
introduction of machinery inevitably followed. 

Printers* colours underwent the same evolution. Formerly 
the printer always prepared them himself. On fine days 
the printing-office staff went out into the garden or the fields 


2/ :: .-.•/iMfOCSCiOjiftS *AtrD printers* inks. 
• •♦ ••• .' ••»•••,-.• 

and rigged up their boiling pot. Then the assistants had a 
festival, oulminating in roasting bread in the hot linseed oil 
and eating it. The boiled oil was then mixed with the pig- 
ment and the finished ink was taken home. What would a 
modem printer say if asked to use such a lumpy mixture ? 
Here then, too, machinery had to be introduced before a 
product which made modern printing possible could be pro- 
duced. The substitution of power-driven printing machines 
for hand presses had a. great deal to do with producing this 

That the progress in colour manufacture has not been 
solely* a question of grinding is easily understood, and we 
have sifting and mixing machinery to describe, and to these 
a special part of the book is devoted. 

As a vehicle for oil-colours linseed oil has always been 
the mainstay of the industry, and we also use poppy oil and 
nut oil in the manufacture of artists' colours. Of the other 
drying oils — hemp, sunflower, cotton, grape-seed, tobacco- 
seed, dodder, croton, castor, madia, etc. — ^hemp oil is used 
locally, in GaHcia and Kussia. The bankul oil of Aleurites 
triloba might advantageously be imported from Martinique, 
Guadeloupe, New Caledonia, Tahiti, Guiana, and Eeunion, 
and used for pigments and varnishes, but so far no quantities 
worth mentioning have been brought to Europe. 

The siccative properties of linseed oil are developed either 
with reducible metallic oxides or other bodies rich in oxygen, 
or, still better, by means of oxygen itself. The oil may also 
be purified or bleached for colour mixing. The artist in oils 
should only use linseed, poppy, or nut oil that has been 
nature bleached, especially for delicate shades, but manu- 
facturers have already gone so far as to use cotton-seed oil 
in manufacturing even comparatively high-priced artists' 

The purification and bleaching of linseed oil, and its boiling 
are matters of great importance in colour preparation, and 


shall be desoribed with corresponding minuteness. For the 
printer, linseed oil and lampblack are the most important raw 
materials, and the practice of centuries has shown that a 
pure, clear, long-stocked linseed oil is the only suitable oil 
for his use. This, then, the modem manufacturer must 
remember and pay he'ed to. 

The number of pigments used for painting of all kinds and 
by printers has steadily increased with the lapse of time, and 
although many are now offered of excellent appearance 
which fall short of the claims put forward on their behalf, 
yet experience will soon teach the user how to make his 
choice. This book will enable the colour- maker to improve 
his somewhat defective knowledge, and to give him the 
certainty in judgment that he most certainly requires. 

Although in our industry the preparation of dry colours is 
only occasionally undertaken by the manufacturer of mixed 
paints, yet in all cases the maker of printers' ink should 
produce his own lampblack, and the methods of doing so are 
detailed in a special part of this work. 

It is unnecessary to dwell on the fact that a time so rich 
in inventions as the present has not stood still as regards 
colour manufacture, and that many proposals have been and 
are still being made to replace drying oils as vehicles for 
pigments by cheaper or better substitutes. I feel myself 
called upon, however, to remark in this connection that no 
substitute hitherto suggested is superior to the drying oils, 
and that at present a good paint, whether for artistic, print- 
ing or general purposes, can only be made with a drying 



Linseed oil is made from the seeds of the flax plant, Linum 
usitatissimum. The plant is largely cultivated in Holland, 
Kussia, Austria, Germany and France. These European 
sources of supply are, however, inadequate for the enormous 
consumption, and most of the linseed oil of commerce is now 
made from East Indian seed, which comes in cargoes to 
Holland and England, where the oil is extracted. The native 
place of the flax plant is Asia, and it was known to the 
ancients, who made linen from it, as is proved by micro- 
scopical examination of mummy-cloths. 
The oil is obtained : — 

1. By cold pressure, if the oil is to be used as an article 
of food. 

2. By hot pressing for technical purposes only, as the oil 
obtained has a disagreeable taste. 

3. By extraction. 

Each method gives a different yield of oil. 

Cold pressing gives 20-21 per cent. 

Hot „ „ 27-28 „ 

Extraction „ 33-33 „ 

Oil from fresh seeds is mucilaginous and turbid, the seeds 
therefore are stocked for from two to six months before 

The seeds are then broken up by stamps, rollers, or in a 
pugmill, and next heated by steam or over the fire in suitable 
vessels. Various advantages are secured by heating the 
seeds. The oil becomes thinner, and flows out more easily 


under the pressure. The yield is increased, the albuminous 
bodies in the seed are coagulated and the mucilaginous 
substances are dried up. There is, however, the disadvantage 
that the hot oil dissolves colouring matter and extractives 
with a disagreeable taste out of the residue of the seeds. 
Hence, as we have already said, hot pressed linseed oil is 
used only for technical purposes. 

The pressure is applied with hydrauhc or wedge-presses 
and either horizontally or vertically. All large oil factories 
now use hydrauhc presses. 

The production of oil by pressure has been frequently 
described and the apparatus is well known, but as the 
extraction process is less familiar I will describe it more 
fully. Deite says in his Technologie der Fette und Oele : — 

** Even by the use of the greatest pressures at our command 
it is impossible to press all the oil out of the seeds. It is this 
residual oil that gives value to the press-cakes, which contain 
about 10 per cent, of it. To get the full yield from the seeds, 
solvents must be used. Schrotter showed the method of 
manufacturing bisulphide of carbon in 1838, and Jesse Fisher, 
of Birmingham, the introducer of the employment of the 
bisulphide industrially, first used it for extracting linseed 
oil in 1843. Deiss and Sufiferth of Brunswick followed in 
Fisher's footsteps. Besides bisulphide of carbon other sol- 
vents are available, especially petroleum-ether, benzole, 
canadol, etc., introduced by Vohl Eichardson and Hirzel." 

Lampadius, the discoverer of bisulphide of carbon in 1796, 
made it by the method still used, viz., passing sulphur vapour 
over red-hot carbon, and oil factories using it always make 
their own. The apparatuses in which the bisulphide is put 
to the linseed are all alike in the main features of their action, 
including the recovery of the bisulphide of distillation. The 
bisulphide passes vertically through the seeds, but sometimes 
upwards and sometimes downwards. The bisulphide can be 
added to the seeds themselves, previously crushed as above 


described, and then dried, or may be used to extract the 
residual oil from the press-cakes. For this purpose the 
press-cakes are ground up. Air-tight iron cylinders are used 
for the extraction. 

As soon as carbon bisulphide had been introduced for oil 
extraction a controversy arose as to its merits. The farmer 
lamented the loss of oil-cake for fodder. The cows would 
not eat the sulphur-smelling residues from the extraction 
process. The oil-dealer complained of the disagreeable 
smell and taste of the oil, the soap-boiler of the odour the 
oil communicated to his soap, and the painter because the 
oil blackened white lead, whether it was stirred up with that 
pigment or applied to it in the form of another paint. 

Chemists complained that colouring matter was dissolved 
by the bisulphide and also a resinous sticky body, which 
favoured absorption of oxygen, and caused rapid resinification 
and rancidity of the oil. The oil also contained seed meal 
which unfitted it for many purposes. All these things com- 
bined killed the extraction process. The existing factories 
did not prosper, and most of them stopped altogether. Just 
at this time, moreover, the opening out of the petroleum 
industry in America caused a use to be sought for petroleum - 
ether, and it was speedily adopted instead of bisulphide of 
carbon for oil extraction. 

A Hght petroleum-ether boiling at 60° C. enables us to get 
a very pure oil from seeds as it does not dissolve resins, 
whence Vohl called it canadol. Eaw canadol itself contains 
sulphur, and must therefore be treated with bichromate and 
sulphuric acid, and then rectified. 

Opinions as regards the comparative merits of canadol 
and bisulphide of carbon for extraction purposes were formerly 
very divided. Now, when the manufacture of the bisulphide 
has been so improved that repeated rectification gives us a 
product which will extract oil of perfect purity, and with an 
agreeable smell, and when the cost of producing the bisul- 


phide is so low that it can compete with canadol, the question 
which of the two is to be preferred comes up, and must be 
considered. The answer is that when the oil is to be used 
for food or for perfumery extraction with canadol is to be 
preferred. For all other purposes the choice must be deter- 
mined by the current market prices of the two solvents. In 
favour of bisulphide of carbon it must be mentioned that it 
is more convenient to use, as it is employed cold for extrac- 
tion, while canadol must be boiling. Hence the apparatus 
required is less expensive in the case of bisulphide. Again, 
very old seeds are not perfectly exhausted of oil by canadol, 
whereas the full yield is obtained with carbon bisulphide. 

Practice has now got rid of all the troubles attending the 
use of bisulphide of carbon. The residues have no longer 
the least smell, and have long since regained favour as fodder. 
The result has been that the factories of bisulphide existing 
when the improvement in the manufacture was made were 
soon unable to cope with the demand, and during the last 
ten years the output of bisulphide and its use for oil extraction 
have greatly increased. It is found that it is cheaper to 
extract the oil than to press it out, and that it can be done 
with a less outlay of capital. The oil works using the ex- 
traction process have propitiated the farmers by abandonment 
of complete exhaustion of the oil, and this step has by the 
way almost quadrupled the output of the factories. 

Cold-pressed oil is nearly colourless, having only a very 
pale yellow tint, while hot-pressed oil is distinctly yellow, or 
even brown. The dissolved-out oil is of a very pale yellow. 
The taste of linseed oil differs from that of the non-drying 
oils, and is a characteristic bitter with a rough after- taste. 
The smell of the oil is also peculiar, and Mulder does not 
think it due solely to volatile fatty acids, such as butjrric, 
valerianic and caproic. 

Linseed oil does not freeze until far below zero G. Gusseron 
says that it will freeze at -16° C. if kept several days at 


that temperature. Saussure says- 27^° C, and I would put 
its freezing point still lower, as I have never succeeded in 
getting solid Hnseed oil at temperatures of - 28 or - 29° C. 
It dissolves in sixteen times its weight of ether and in forty 
times its weight of cold alcohol, or in five times its weight of 
boiling alcohol. With oil of turpentine it mixes in all pro- 
portions. Its specific gravity is : — 

•9395 at 12° 0. 
•9300 at 25° 0. 
•9125 at 60° C. 
•8815 at 94° 0. 

Linseed oil boils at 130° C. On the oil-balance it should 
show 30°, but the indications of the instrument are not 
altogether trustworthy. At from 360 to 400° C. the stinking 
vapours which began to come off at 210° will catch fire, and 
burn with a red flame and with much smoke. 

Fresh linseed oil is saponifiable, and forms a yellow soft 
soap with soda. A solution of this soap treated with hydro- 
chloric acid gives a fluid supernatant layer, which forms 
crystals of stearic and palmitic acid on cooling. 

By boiling linseed oil in the air we get first boiled oil, and 
by further heating to a high temperature a tough mass which 
will not make a greasy mark on paper. It is usual to set 
fire to the fumes, but this is not indispensable. If heated 
beyond a certain point linseed oil loses its drying power, and 
becomes sticky and elastic. To remain drying it must be 
heated till the linoleine begins to decompose. Among the 
first products which the heat volatilises are derivatives of 
oleine, myristine and palmitine. 

When linseed oil has been heated to a tough mass that 
mass will become solider if boiled in dilute nitric acid. The 
acid promotes the separation of the linoleic acid from the 
glycerine, so that the smell of scrolein becomes noticeable. 
Finally, according to Jones, the mass becomes a sort of 
india-rubber, and is no longer sticky to the touch, and no 


longer fusible. It is, however, still soluble in bisulphide of 
carbon to an emulsion. If this india-rubbery mass is boiled 
in concentrated potash lye, it combines with it, but is not 
dissolved. The compound is decomposed by acids, setting 
the india-rubbery substance free again. In alcohol-containing 
ether the india-rubbery substance swells up, and dissolves 
if more ether is added. It is reprecipitated by alcohol. In 
petroleum it swells up but does not dissolve. It will dissolve 
in a large quantity of oil of turpentine. 

When linseed oil is dry distilled, we get as a distillate 
acrolein, partly oxidised to acrylic acid, saUcylic acid, pal- 
mitic acid and myristic acid, with linoleic anhydride as a 

The ultimate composition of linseed oil is : — 

Cold pressed. Hot pres^d. 

per cent. per cent. 

Carbon 78-11 75-27 

Hydrogen 10-96 10-88 

Oxygen 10-93 13-85 

The oil is a mixture of linoleine (C^g Hgg 0)3 Cg H5 O3, the 
glyceride of Hnoleic acid with oleine, palmitine and myristine, 
the linoleine forming about 81 per cent. Hence the saponi- 
fication products are glycerine, linoleic acid and oleic or some 
aUied acid, those of dry distillation being acids yielding 
sebacic acid, palmitic and myristic acids. 

Linseed oil has more power than any other drying oil, 
absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere and on boiling with 
metallic oxides, whereby its composition is considerably 
altered and we get boiled oil. 

Linseed oil is much adulterated, less, however, by the 
makers than by the middlemen. The adulterations used 
depend upon prices. They include rape, cotton and hemp 
oils, and also petroleum, fish oil, resin oil, colophony, etc. 

Adulteration with fish oil is detected by stirring up ten 
parts of the oil to be tested with three of sulphuric acid. On 


standing the oil and acid separate. If the oil contains fish 
oil it rises to the surface of a dark brown colour, while the 
acid below it is orange or brownish yellow. If the oil is 
pure, it is at first green, then a dirty yellowish green, while 
the acid assumes a purer yellow colour. This adulteration 
can also be detected by chlorine which bleaches pure linseed 
oil, but turns all animal fats first brown and finally black. 

Adulteration with colophony and other resins may be 
detected by boiling the oil for a few minutes with S.V.E. of 
from '88 to 99 sp. gr., drawing off the solution when cold, 
and treating it with a solution of acetate of lead in alcohol. 
If the oil was pure, a turbidity results, but the presence of 
resins causes the appearance of a white curdy precipitate. 

To detect resin oil, the senses of smell and taste are best 
reHed upon. Even small quantities of resin oil can be re- 
cognised in linseed oil by the taste. A good plan is to rub 
a drop of the oil to be tested between the palms of the hands, 
for on separating them the smell of the resin oil can be 
detected. The following method is also said to be reliable. 
Mix at the ordinary temperature (not however below 16° C.) 
equal volumes of the linseed oil and nitric acid of sp. gr. 
1*4. Shake the mixture well for half a minute, and then 
allow it to stand. When the oil and acid have separated we 
have the following colours : — 

Nature of Sample. 




linseed oil 

Pale cinnamon 




Bed oil + 5 per cent. 



n M 




,, + 12 ., 



Dark olive 

Dark yellow. 


» +50 




Pale orange. 

For accurate methods of testing linseed-oil adulteration 
with other vegetable oils, which only happens when their 
price relative to that of linseed oil makes it worth while, I 
refer the reader to Dr. Benedikt's Analyse der Fette, and 
will only give here Morawaki and Demski's method for 
detecting unsaponifiable fats (petroleum and resin oil), because 


it is with these liiat linseed oil is mostly adulterated at 

The complete separation of the layers of liquid got by 
treating the soap with a volatile solvent is often difficult, but 
the following process enables it to be done always quickly 
and easily in the separating funnel. Ten grammes of the oil 
are treated with 50 c.c. of alcohol and a concentrated solution 
in water of 5 grammes of caustic potash. The whole is 
heated for half an hour with a reflux condenser. Then 50 
c.c. of water are added, and the mass is cooled by standing 
the containing flask in cold water. The mass is then shaken 
up in the separating funnel with petroleum-ether. When the 
two liquids have separated the lower layer is drawn off as 
completely as possible. What remains in the funnel is 
washed repeatedly with water, but the washings are not 
added to what was first drawn off. Finally, the last washing 
is drawn off as completely as possible. As even with the 
greatest care drops of water accompany the ether when it is 
drawn off in its turn, it is not poured at once into the tared 
dish in which it is to be evaporated, but into another dry 
dish. It is then transferred thence to the tared dish, 
leaving the water behind adhering to the sides of the other 
dish. The first portion drawn off from the separating funnel 
is then treated with more ether, which after washing, etc., 
as above described, is also transferred to the tared dish. 

To ascertain quickly whether the unsaponifiable fat is 
resin oil or petroleum, shake it with its own volume of 
acetone. If perfect mixture ensues, the fat is resin oil or a 
mixture of petroleum with a large excess of resin oil, but if 
not, the fat is either all petroleum or there is very little 
resin oil. Alcohol of sp. gr. '95 can also be used, in 
which resin oil sinks and petroleum floats. If saponifiable 
oils are also suspected, we may determine what vegetable 
oil is present as an adulterant by finding the iodine and 
saponification values of the original substance, or by ex- 


amining the fatty acids set free from the soap, first separated 
from the unsaponifiable matters, by a mineral acid. This 
examination may include the determination of the saponifica- 
tion number, temperatures of fusion and solidification, iodine 
number, etc. The iodine number must be first determined 
for the free fatty acids, as Hubl's process is only for neutral 
fats. The author has found for the iodine numbers of the 
fatty acids the following figures : — 

Acids from rape oil . . , . , , 96'3 - 99*02 

Acids from earth-nut oil 95*5 - 96*9 

Acids from sesamum oil 108*9 - 111*4 

Acids from cotton oil 110*9 - 111*4 

Acids from linseed oil 155*2 - 155*9 

Acids from hemp oil 122*2 - 125*2 

Acids from castor oil 86*8 - 88*3 

Acids from cocoanut oil 8*39 - 8*49 

It is sufficient to act directly on the fatty acids with Hubl's 
iodine solution. If it is wished to calculate the iodine number 
J of the saponified fat from the iodine number Jg of the un- 
saponifiable fat of the original mixture and the iodine number 
Jj of the whole original substance, it can be done by the 

J = (a : 100 Ji - 6 Jg). 

Here a is the percentage of saponifiable fat, and h that of 
unsaponifiable fat. The first described method is, however, 
to be preferred, i,e, making use of the separated fatty acids, 
because the same material can be used for the determination 
of fusion and soHdification points, which are very important 
data in the recognition of fats. 



Poppy oil is got by pressure from the seeds of Papaver 
somniferum, specially the black variety, and its production 
is an important industry in the north of France. About 
half the oil produced there is used at home, and most of 
the other half goes to the south of the same country, 
where it is used for making grain -soap. In Germany 
poppy oil comes mostly from Baden, Bavaria and Wiirtem- 
burg. The poppyheads are opened at a certain degree of 
ripeness, and their contents are shaken out on to sheets 
of iron, winnowed to get rid of fragments of capsule, and 
ground to meal in a mill. This meal is put into bags of 
ticking, and in them into the press. The oil is collected 
and allowed to settle till clear, when it is sold. The 
French distinguish two classes : white, for culinary pur- 
poses ; and red, for technical uses. 

Poppy oil is of a pale yellow to a light gold colour, 
clear, fluid, of pleasant taste, and with a characteristic 
though feeble smell. It is much used for food, and is 
sometimes even preferred to olive oil, with which it is used 
as an adulterant. It does not become rancid easily. The 
older oils are used as fuel, but give too bad a light to be 
employed as illuminants. 

The second quality, got by hot pressing, has a rough 
taste and smell. 


The specific gravity of the oil is : — 

•9285 at 10^ C. 
•9271 „ 12<' „ 
•926 „ 16° „ 
•9216 „ 20° „ 

At 15° 0. the oil is 13-6, and at 7-5** C. 18-3 tunes 
thicker than water. It freezes with difficulty. It is still 
clear, though thick, at 15° C, and does not solidify above 
20° C. Once frozen to a white mass it does not thaw again 
till heated to 2° C, when it begins to fuse rapidly. 

Poppy oil dissolves in its own volume of ether, and in 
25 volumes of cold, 6 of boiling, alcohol. If consists chiefly 
of linoleine, together with the glycerides of oleic, stearic, 
palmitic, myristic and lauric acids. 

Its ultimate analysis is : — 

Per Cent. 

Carbon 78*63 

Hydrogen 11-63 

Oxygen 11*74 

Poppy oil is easily saponified, and gives a hard soap. 



Linseed oil is brought upon the market for rapid sale, and 
contains considerable amounts of such foreign bodies as 
water and linseed-meal, which, when the oil comes to be 
used for paints and varnishes, must be removed if a fault- 
less product is to be obtained. 

The simplest method of purification requires no plant or 
outlay, and consists in simply stocking the oil in a receptacle 
fitted with draw-off cocks at different depths, and leaving 
it then for weeks or months, or even a year, with free 
access of air all the time. If the top of the vat must be 
covered on account of dust, holes should be made in the 
sides above the surface of the oil. 

Where, however, space does not permit of this procedure, 
mechanical means of purifying the oil must be resorted to. 
To these means belong : — 

1. Machines in which the oil is first stirred up for a long 
time and then allowed to stand. 

2. Machines in which the oil is filtered, either by its own 
weight or by artificial pressure. 

3. Mixing with the oil heavier liquids which when they 
separate out carry the impurities to the bottom with them. 

4. Heating and bubbhng hot air through the oil. 

These mechanical methods have so far proved themselves 
superior to chemical means because when drugs are used 
they have themselves tb be got rid of afterwards, and that is 
always the longest and most troublesome part of the series 


of operations. Acids are employed and it is absolutely 
necessary to get rid of them, as the presence of traces would 
affect the pigments when the oil was used for paint-mixing. 
Time has also to be allowed for the oil to clear, and there is 
a loss by the saponification of part of the oil, which forms a 
layer which would have to be treated with ether to get the 
oil from it. 

Although in spite of this I shall mention some chemical 
methods of purification, it is only to make my work com- 

In working on a small scale, it is always best to purify the 
oil by stocking rather than to use chemicals. On a large 
scale, one of the machines about to be described is essential, 
and especially that alluded to in the last of the four cate- 
gories just mentioned, which allows of rapid and uninter- 
rupted working. 

Eieok's Machine. 

In the machine of Otto Eieck of Mulheim A is the 
cylinder fastened in the vessel B and enlarged below. C is 
a hollow piston, which moves freely, but closely fitting, in 
A, and has a perforated bottom D is a hollow piston rod 
attached to the piston and passing through a stuffing box at 
E into the lower vessel. G is the perforated top of the piston 
which can be pressed by the screw H doWn on the filtering 
material contained in the hollow of the piston. J are weights 
to enable the pressure of the piston to be regulated, and K is 
a hand wheel for raising the piston. M is the cleaning hole, 
and N a cock. 

The apparatus works as follows : The oil to be purified is 
put into B, and by means of K the piston is lifted. This 
causes the oil to flow through the valve to the under side of 
the piston. The piston is then allowed to descend slowly 
by means of the weights J. This forces the oil upwards 
through the filtering material. When it arrives above the 

piston and flows through a hole in the hollow piston rod intio 

Fig. 1. 

the lower receptacle F, the dirt filtered from the oil can be 
removed through M. 

Cataract Machine. 

This is made by the Actiengesellschaft fiir Maschinenbau 
und Eisenindustrie at Barel in Oldenburg. It is represented 
in vertical section by fig. 2. The oil to be purified is filled 
into the cylindrical iron vessel up to a mark. By turning 
the wheel S, the stirrer Fl is set in rapid motion. The 
centrifugal force thereby set up in the oil causes it to rise 
against the sides of the vessel. Thus it is caught by the pro- 




jections K and a ring above them, and driven down again 
through the centre, to be again acted on by Fl. This vigorous 
stirring brings about an intimate contact between the particles 
of the oil and the atmospheric air, such as is impossible by 
any other means or by any other machine. This makes the 

Pig. 2. 

machine very suitable for purifying oil, and it can also be 
used for mixing boiled oil or varnish with pigments. 

The Actiengesellschaft makes sizes of the cataract machine 
holding from 20 to 400 litres. One holding 100 to 125 litres 
with wheel for hand-driving costs M.250 at Barel. Larger 
machines are provided with pulleys for belt-driving by power. 

Urb's Oil Filter. 

Ure has proposed a very practical filter for the mechanical 
purification of linseed oil. In it the oil is put in a reservoir. 
This has a tube with a cock near the bottom whereby it can 


be put into communication with a cistern of water. The 
oil filter consists of a cylinder divided into three storeys 
by perforated plates. The lower storey communicates with 
the oil reservoir by a short knee- tube. The middle storey 
contains the filtering material, such as cotton, coarsely 
powdered charcoal, felt, etc., and the upper storey receives 
the filtered oil and is provided with a draw-off cock. When 
the cistern is full of water and the reservoir of oil, the con- 
necting tubes are opened. The water enters the oil reservoir 
and drives the oil through the filter by hydrostatic pressure. 
When sediment has accumulated in the lower storey of the 
filter it is drawn off by a cock. We are thus enabled to 
separate the clear oil quickly and easily from the sediment it 
deposits by being purified. 

Bags were formerly used for oil filtering, but they soon get 
clogged. Cotton and loose stuff were tried instead, but these 
wanted constant changing at a great expense in time and 
material. When upward filtration was first introduced, the 
filtering material was almost invariably sawdust. This how- 
ever has drawbacks which caused its replacement by other 

The Upward Oil Filter. 

This is packed with linen, tow, moss, or oakum only. 
The filter-case is of iron lined with lead, and is fed from 
below through a valve by the hydrostatic pressure of oil from 
a vessel placed high above the filter. The valve permits of 
the regulation of the supply of oil to the filter, according to 
the time available for the filtration. 

At the bottom of the filter a cross-piece, H, carries a per- 
forated wooden disc. This is covered with a piece of coarse 
linen with a finer piece over it. Then comes a thin layer of 
oakum, E, then one of moss, M, and linen. Then another 
perforated disc, more oakum and moss, and so on to 
The screw, S, not only serves for supplying the pressure 



which keeps the filtering layers together but by regulating 
their density decides upon the rapidity with which the oil 
passes through. The moss used for filtering the oil must 
have been gathered in a dry season of the year, and must be 
freed from sand and earth by shaking in a sieve. Moss — 
Hyolocomium triquetrum Schimp ; Hypnum splendens Hedw ; 
Polytrichum commune L. — is a most excellent oil-filtering 
medium, and can be used without tow or any other adjimct. 

Fig. 3. 

If moss alone is used for packing the filter, it must be 
packed properly by means of the screw S. The moss must 
naturally be renewed from time to time. If the oil has been 
stocked for some time before filtering a renewal about every 
three weeks is sufficient. After a lot of moss has been used 
for filtration for the last time, hot water and strong pressure 
are used to get from it the oil which it would otherwise re- 


Oil-Ebfininq Kettle. 

This new apparatus, shown in fig. 4, is intended for the 
refining of fresh pressed oils in general and is specially 
advantageous for use with linseed oil, because the oxygen 

Fig. 4. 

action involved in the working of the apparatus makes that 
oil much more drying. 

The boiler or kettle, A, is about 1*4: metre in diameter and 
contains the steam coil, D, both ends of which pass through 
the lid. On the hd is a tube carrying the vessel E with an 
air-ejector, E. When this ejector is set to work, after the 


kettle has been two thirds filled with oil, .it causes a vacuum 
to. form over the oil. As this vacuum is produced air forces 
its way through the oil by means of the tube L. About the 
same time steam is passed through the coil. Hence the oil 
is heated, stirred, and brought into intimate contact with 
atmospheric oxygen all at the same time. The heat removes 
any water present with the oil, while the oxygen acts upon 
it chemically. 

Oil treated by this apparatus becomes as clear and pure 
as if it had been through the processes carried out in a 
regular oil refinery. The apparatus can be used with direct 
as well as with indirect steam. The precipitates settle quickly 
and can be drawn off through the cock Z. The water left 
with the oil can readily be evaporated by setting the ejector 
to work. A specially interesting feature of this apparatus is 
that a higher temperature is reached in it than can be ob- 
tained with the steam coil. This is due to the friction of the 
oil particles among one another, just as a rise of temperature 
is got by shaking a liquid. 



Fob purifying linseed oil we use sulphuric and hydrochloric 
acids, alum, common salt, bichromate of potash, permanganate 
of potash, etc. 

Take for 300-400 kilos, of linseed oil 1 kilo, of fuming sul- 
phuric acid, and add it to the oil in a thin stream and with 
constant stirring. Then add to the oil a third of its weight 
of boiling water, stir thoroughly once more, and allow the 
mass to stand. When the oil has completely risen to the top 
of the acid water, it is run off and mixed in another vessel 
with 3 per cent, of dry common salt. The salt removes from 
the oil the water which makes it turbid and nothing remains 
but to filter the oil through a bag filled with bran. When 
these bags are dirty the bran is used for fodder and the bags 
are cleaned with Ume- water or potash lye. The water is not 
added to the oil in the above process directly after the sul- 
phuric acid, but after the oil and acid have remained together 
overnight. This enables the sediment to settle well and to 
consolidate at the bottom, so that the oil can easily be drawn 
off clear. One should then dissolve for every 100 kilos, of 
oil 250 grammes of common salt in 10 Utres of water, and 
pour the solution as hot as possible into the decanted oil, and 
stir for one or two hours, or as long as is necessary to form 
a delicate white froth on the oil. The appearance of this 
froth is a good sign, but it is also an indication that the 
stirring must be stopped, or the oil will become dirty and 


thick and never get dear. If we now leave the oil for about 
two days in a fairly warm place it separates perfectly bright 
and clear. It is then filtered either through well-washed 
and perfectly dry river sand or through felt hats with wide 

According to Evrard, oil is purified by shaking it up with 
a dilute solution of caustic potash or soda, drawing off the 
unsaponified oil which rises to the top, and shaking it with 
water, and again allowing it to separate. Wagner considers 
that zinc chloride may be substituted for sulphuric acid with 
advantage. It is said to dissolve the mucilaginous bodies, 
and in time to carbonise them, without affecting the oil. A 
syrupy solution of chloride of zinc is shaken up with fifteen 
times as much oil. The oil becomes turbid, but by treat- 
ment with steam or warm water after standing again clears. 
Tilchmann recommends sulphurous acid for purifying oil. 
He passes the gas in a stream through the oil heated to 260° 
C (?) 1 for four hours, and then drives off the acid present by 
means of steam. The effect can be produced at lower 
temperatures, but takes longer. Probably the sulphurous 
acid becomes sulphuric in the linseed oil, and forms sulpho- 
fatty acids. Another, and very excellent method, is to use 
permanganate. The process is not only decidedly quick, but 
partially bleaches the oil, which is an additional advantage. 
The salt not only bleaches but destroys fragments of cellular 
tissue, etc., and hence its purifying action. To purify 100 
kilos, of linseed oil we prepare a solution of one kilo, of 
crystallised permanganate in 30 kilos, of distilled water at 
the ordinary temperature, and stir the solution into the oil. 
Keep the mass stirred for two hours, and then leave it to 
stand. The oil separates completely from the permanganate 
solution in the course of a day or two, and can then be drawn 
off, paler in colour than before, and free from all impurity. 

^ The query is And^s's. 



Combbet's Apparatus. 

The apparatus of Eaymond Gombret enables us to combine 
mechanical with chemical purification. In it thin streams of 
oil are purified by passing through various solutions of salts. 
The process is carried out in the cylinders B (figs. 5 and 6), 
of which several are used, to permit of continuous working. 

The oil is placed in the reservoir A and goes through a 
pipe C and rose D into the tinned iron cyHnder B, which 
opens above into another cylinder of larger diameter closed 
by a lid. The cylinders contain water or solutions of 

The tube C brings the oil to a T shaped tube, E, connected 
with the steam pipe F for heating the solutions in the 



cylinders. The tube leading downwards with the cook C 
serves to clean out the tube E. The rose distributes the oil 
through the contents of the cylinder, 
which rises through the Hquid to float 
on the surface in the wide upper part 
of the cylinder. Thence the oil can 
be drawn off by the cock H, while 
the cock J leads the oil to the next 
cylinder or to the filter. The sur- 
face of the liquid in the cyUnders can 
be brought accurately to the height 
of the cocks H and J by drawing it off 
through the cock K or by adding more 
through the tube L. The cylinder is 
emptied by means of , M. The battery 
of cylinders must be so arranged that 
the bottom of the wide upper part of 
the first is above the whole of the 
second, and that the same relationship 
subsists between the second and the 
third, and so on, so that the oil may 
flow through the battery by its own 
weight. It is led by a pipe after 
leaving the last cylinder into the 
filtering apparatus. It is a very good 
plan to insert a small rotatory pump 
N in the tubes J and C, so as to in- 
crease the velocity of the oil as it enters 
the cylinder, and if necessary to drive 
the purified oil through a tube O, fixed 
to the cock D, back to the bottom of 
the same cylinder. 
By this process we are enabled to use the various chemicals 
applicable to the purification of oil, such as sulphuric acid. 

Fig. 6. 


ohromic acid, manganic acid, sulphites, etc., according to the 
effect they are to produce. 

For certain purposes, e,g,y in the preparation of extra pale 
oils for white pigments, the foregoing processes are insuf- 
ficient, and bleaching must be resorted to in addition to 
them, as they affect the yellow colour of the oil only imper- 
fectly or not at all. 



BiiEACHiNQ may be natural or artificial, that is to say it may 
be done by the action of the sun or with chemicals, and the 
natural method is distinguished by its name from the more 
rapid process of chemical bleaching. 

Sun Bleaching. 

Schadler says in his Technologie den Oele und Fette, speak- 
ing of bleaching and the action of various bleaching agents : 
" The usual chemical action of light is to separate oxygen 
from various bodies, for light promotes the combination of 
atmospheric oxygen with the hydrogen and carbon of the 
organic substance of the dyes, whereby the latter are usually 
destroyed or changed into lighter shades. In many cases 
the special action of Ught may depend on its promoting the 
formation of ozone or peroxide of hydrogen, which when 
formed oxidise the colouring matters more easily than the 
oxygen of the air. The most powerful bleaching action is 
naturally exerted by the light of the sun. For chemical 
bleaching many various things are used, but all may be 
reduced to the action of ozone, peroxide of hydrogen, 
chlorine, and sulphurous acid. The first two act by oxida- 
tion. Chlorine removes hjdrogen, forming hydrochloric acid 
and replaces it by itself. Sulphurous acid forms a colourless 
compound with the colouring matter." 

To carry out oil-bleaching by the sun on a large scale, we 
use wooden vats Hned with zinc, or make the vessels entirely 


of lead. In the latter case, the increased durability of the 
receptacles under constant use well repays the extra initial 
cost. These vessels are best made one metre long by half 
that width, and 15 to 20 cm. deep. They must be provided 
with well-fitting hds, so as to protect the oil from rain. The 
lid has a large pane of glass in it, and is slightly slanted for 
rain to run off it easily by having one of the sides of the 
vessel 2 to 3 cm. higher than the other. It is also of im- 
portance that air should have free access to the oil. Hence 
two tubes open at both ends are put through the sides of the 
vessel, opposite each other, so that a constant current of 
fresh air is supplied to the oil. In the course of a fortnight 
the oil in the vessels will become quite white and clear, and 
only requires to be drawn off. The sediment can be added 
to common oil for boiling. To accelerate the operation 
chemicals may be added to the oil. For example, a small 
addition of 96 per cent, spirit is of great advantage, and the 
action soon becomes noticeable. Linseed oil is almost always 
mixed with ferrous sulphate, peroxide of manganese, or 
hydrochloric acid, to hasten the bleaching. 

Eapid bleaching can also be effected in rooms of which 
the atmosphere is kept full of ozone by electrical apparatus, 
or by keeping sticks of damp phosphorus about. 

Peroxide Bleaching. 

Peroxide of hydrogen, which is now made on a large scale 
in many chemical factories, and put on the market in the 
form of a 10 per cent, solution, is a good medium for oil 
bleaching, as it only requires to be well shaken up with the 
oil, and bleaches it in a few days. The bleached oil also 
separates very readily and completely from the peroxide 
solution and can easily be drawn off. For linseed oil 5 per 
cent, of its weight of 10 per cent, peroxide is enough. 
Bleaching with permanganate, manganate or bichromate of 


potash depends upon the action of ozone. The bleaching is 
done in large wooden vessels lined with lead, and provided 
with a stirrer and a heating coil. A solution of permanganate 
or bichromate made strongly acid with sulphuric acid is 
gradually stirred in, and the stirring is then continued for 
thirty to sixty minutes longer, unless the bleaching is finished 
sooner. Then after standing six to twelve hours the oils 
will have risen clear above the green chrome alum-containing 
or brown manganese alum-containing solution. The acid 
liquid is run off and the oil is washed two or three times 
with warm water and left to stand. The clear oil is then 
ladled off. Between the clear oil and the water, a layer of 
emulsion will be found. This is best treated with 10 to 15 
per cent, of petroleum-ether, which at once separates the oil 
in it from the water. The ether is recovered by distillation 
after enough of it has been collected from several bleaching 
operations, and is used over again for the same purpose. 
One hundred kilos, of linseed oil require from 600 to 600 
grammes of bichromate or permanganate, together with twice 
the quantity of sulphuric acid. The acid is diluted with five 
to six times its bulk of water before use. 

Sulphuric Acid Bleaching. 

For bleaching with sulphuric acid, we take a litre of the 
acid for 100 kilos, of oil, first diluted with 30 litres of water. 
The whole mixture having been warmed up by the steam 
coil is additioned gradually with very finely powdered per- 
oxide of manganese, till the at first brown mass has nearly 
turned white. At the close, the oil is washed, and then 
treated as before directed. 

Sulphurous Acid Bleaching. 

As all fats, even linseed oil, are much attacked in bleaching 
by chlorine, I consider the method quite inapplicable, and 
proceed to discuss bleaching with sulphurous acid. For this 



we use the cheap acid sodium 
bisulphite, a concentrated solu- 
tion of which shaken up with 
the oil is of great service. But 
to bring all the sulphurous acid 
present into play we also add 
dilute sulphuric acid. This is 
done on a large scale in vats 
lined with lead. For a metric 
hundredweight ^ of linseed oil 
from 1 to li kilo, of the 
bisulphite is required. The 
sulphuric acid must be added 
in excess, but very gradually. 
If the acid is put in too quickly 
the sulphurous acid is evolved 
so rapidly that it escapes with- 
out doing any work. 

According to Schadler, Kort- 
ing's aspirator or a steam aspi- 
rator is very suitable for use in 
bleaching with sulphurous acid. 

The steam apparatus (fig. 7) 
is made of hard lead. The 
high pressure steam enters it 
as shown by the arrow, and 
passes inside through a number 
of hollow cones. This sucks in 
the air at high velocity and 
drives it out from another 

This apparatus can be used 
to produce either suction or 
pressure, i.e., to rarefy or com- 
press air, according to require- 

1 About llOi lb. 

Fia. 7. 



ment. It is so constructed that with a steam pressure of 
three atmospheres it will control by suction a water column 
of 3 to 8 metres and one of 3 to 4 metres by pressure. 

In fig. 8 an air aspirator is shown fixed to the top of a vat 





Fig. 8. 

containing the oil to be bleached. It sucks, through the 
pipe and a perforated coil, sulphurous acid, which passes 
through the oil in an extremely finely divided state, till the 
bleaching is perfect. The vat must of course be closed and 


air-tight. The sulphurous acid is generated in a very simply 
built stove by burning sulphur in a draught of air, also pro- 
duced by the aspirator which draws the gas into the oil. A 
steam valve is provided to regulate the rate at which the gas 
passes through the vat. The apparatus works very reliably 
indeed, and can be used even with viscid oils. The oil is 
finally rinsed from the acid by the methods already described. 



According to the principle established by Mulder, that to 
give hnseed oil good drying properties it must be acted upon 
by oxygen at a high temperature, oxidising agents play no 
small part in the manufacture of boiled oil. How long we 
remained in ignorance as to the nature of the substances to 
be used is sufficiently shown by the fact that both text-books 
and old oil- boilers recommend the use of such driers as fish 
bones, whiting, onions, garlic, verdigris, lime, tin, lead, alum, 
ferrous hydrate, etc. All these substances are utterly useless, 
and the progress of chemistry has taught us that the follow- 
ing are the agents which can be employed with success in 
making boiled oil : atmospheric oxygen, red lead, litharge, 
suboxide of lead, sugar of lead, manganous borate, acetate 
and oxalate and the Hnoleates of lead and manganese. 

I can pass over these substances as they are already well 
known, and will only mention that very lately attempts have 
been made to abandon the oxidation of hnseed oil by heating 
in it certain compounds of lead or manganese which decom- 
pose at a particular temperature, and to use nothing but 
oxygen or ozone. The reason of this change of front is that 
the metaUic driers always darken the oil more or less, which 
is for many purposes a very great drawback. In a subsequent 
part of this work several proposals of this nature will be 
exhaustively discussed. Here I will content myself with 
describing some new linoleate driers. 

Among the many drawbacks involved in the use of the 


ordinary chemicals employed in making boiled oil, such 
as litharge, lead acetate, red lead, peroxide of manganese, 
manganous borate or hydrate, etc., one is that they never de- 
compose completely. Hence quantities of them are wasted. 
Again, the boiled oil made with them is hard to clarify. They 
remain long suspended in the oil. These evils have insti- 
gated a search for new driers, among which the Hnoleates 
deserve special mention. 

But before I discuss these new driers fully, I will make 
some remarks on hnoleic acid, which is the chief constituent 
of linseed oil, from Schadler's much-quoted work. 

Linoleic acid (C^g H27 HO), or according to K. Peter's 
Gig H32 O, is called linolein by Mulder. It and its salts are 
little known, on account of their instability. To make it, 
linseed or poppy oil is completely saponified with caustic 
soda lye, and the soap is purified by repeated relarging. 
The soap is dissolved in an excess of water and precipitated 
by calcium chloride. The lime salts of the fatty acids thus 
thrown down are washed with water, drained, pressed to get 
rid of most of the water, and treated with ether. This 
dissolves only the linoleate, thus separating it from the other 
lime salts. The ethereal solution is mixed with cold dilute 
hydrochloric acid, when linoleic acid is set free and remains 
dissolved in the ether floating on the watery liquid. 

The solution of Hnoleic acid in ether is decanted, and the 
ether is distilled off in a stream of hydrogen at the lowest 
possible temperature. The residue is dark yellow and is 
impure Hnoleic acid. It is dissolved in alcohol and pre- 
cipitated as barium Hnoleate with chloride of barium and 
aiiimonia. The precipitate is washed, drained, pressed, 
dissolved in ether, and crystalHsed from ether several times. 
The pure crystals of barium Hnoleate are then shaken up 
with, ether and dilute hydrochloric acid and the ethereal 
solution of Hnoleic acid is distilled in hydrogen as above 
described. The linoleic acid, which does not distil off, is 


dried in a desiccator over sulphuric acid and a mixture of 
lime and ferrous sulphate. The sulphate is to absorb oxygen, 
and prevent oxidation of the linoleic acid. A nearly pure 
linoleic acid is got by decomposing lead linoleate with 
sulphuretted hydrogen, and dissolving the linoleic acid from 
the lead sulphide with ether. 

Linoleic acid is a thin, pale yellow oil, of -9206 sp. gr. 
at 15° C, with a high refractive index, and a weak acid 
reaction. It has a mild taste, followed by a rough after- 
taste. It is still liquid at - 18° C. It is insoluble in water, 
but freely soluble in alcohol or ether. On exposure to the 
air it greedily absorbs oxygen to the extent of about 2 per 
cent, of its weight, thereby becoming tough and thick like a 
varnish. Thin layers of it dry on wood in the air, but on 
glass never become quite dry. Linoleic acid is not volatile 
without decomposition and on distillation gives different 
products from oleic acid. No sebacic acid is then formed. 
Nitrous acid thickens linoleic acid, but causes no separation 
of crystals of elaidic or any related acid. Nitric acid forms 
a slimy resinous mass with much frothing. 

New Driers — Linoleates. 

It is difficult to produce pure linoleates, because they readily 
decompose, forming acid salts. They are white, for the most 
part uncrystalhsable, and separate out in flakes on cooling 
from solution in hot alcohol or ether. By spontaneous 
evaporation a jelly is left. These salts turn brown in the 
air and acquire a characteristic odour. 

Manganous linoleate is sold by Dr. J. Wilhelmi of Keudnitz- 
Leipzig in the form of a pale brown solid. This is really a 
solid manganese soap, and serves for the preparation of all 
manner of liquid siccatives. According to Wilhelmi* s direc- 
tions for the preparation of a well-drying boiled oil 100 lb. 
of raw linseed oil are kept at about 150° C. for five hours, with ' 


1 lb. of the manganous linoleate, previously dissolved in a 
little linseed oil. When cold, the mass, if painted thin on 
glass, dries quite hard within twenty-four hours. The doctor's 
factory also supplies a Uquid drier, which will at once produce 
a clear pale yellow oil. 

Dr. Wilhelmi is said to have discovered that the formation 
of boiled oil is not (?) ^ due to oxidation, but to a solution of 
the manganese in the oil, and for this reason adds a soUd 
compound of hnseed oil with manganese to the boiling raw 
oil, using the manganese compound as a carrier of oxygen. 

Another new sort of drier for making boiled oil quickly has 
been lately made by Dr. Hohn & Co. of Dusseldorf in the 
form of 

Soluble Manganese and Lead Preparations, 

two sorts of the former and one of the latter. 

The manganese preparation No. 1 is the richer in man- 
ganese and therefore the more active of the two. It is, 
however, darker than No. 2, which has no influence on the 
colour of the hnseed oil. The manganese preparations have 
distinct advantages over the usual insoluble ones at present 
on the market. By virtue of their solubility their high per- 
centage of manganese is made fully available, the manganese 
is completely taken up by the oil and dissolved clear, so that 
even small quantities of the drier give well-drying oils which 
remain clear, and require no keeping in stock. 

As the preparations make quite clear solutions, any required 
proportion of manganese can be added to the oil, while in 
using insoluble or only partially soluble preparations of 
manganese we must always remain in doubt whether the 
oil has taken up exactly the desired amount of manganese. 
The preparations dissolved at low temperatures, and mere 
fractions of the quantities of manganese hitherto required are 
suflBcient to make the oil fully drying. 

^ The ^uery is And^s'g, 


To get a good drying oil we proceed as follows : The linseed 
oil is heated to 120° to 140° C, and then 1 per cent, of 
manganese preparation No. 1, or i to 2 per cent, of manga- 
nese preparation No. 2, is added with constant stirring. The 
oil froths at first, but this soon ceases, and when it does the 
oil is ready. If the lead preparation is also used, we take 1 
per cent, of it together with J to J per cent, of manganese 
preparation No. 1, or J to f per cent, of manganese prepara- 
tion No. 2. The result dries well and gives a specially hard 

If I make some more remarks here on the method of adding 
driers, I do so in order to combat erroneous notions. 

Formerly it was beheved that the drier ought not to come 
into contact with the oil, so that it was hung in the oil in 
linen bags, often in an unpowdered state. As, however, the 
oxidising substance was exposed to the oil in a compact mass, 
it was impossible to oxidise the oil properly. The parts of 
the substance nearest the sides of the bag certainly parted 
with their oxygen, but the inside of the mass remained un- 
changed, so that the oil got too Uttle oxygen, and the result 
was naturally very inferior. The oxidising chemicals added 
to the oil cannot act powerfully unless offering the greatest 
possible surface to it, i.e., unless in the finest possible powder, 
so that every particle of it comes into contact with the hot oil 
If these preparations are added to the hot oil, the evolution 
of oxygen is visible, and extraordinarily rapid and energetic. 
The oil froths tremendously and will easily boil over if care 
is not taken. Trials with large quantities of oil have con- 
vinced me that driers had a greater effect on the drjdng 
qualities of the oil when added to the hot oil than if put 
into the cold oil and heated up with it. It is of course 
necessary to add them to the hot oil a Httle at a time, or else 
the pan boils over, with great waste of oil and danger of 

The (quantities of single driers which are required to make 


a good boiled oil depend, firstly, on the nature of the oil, and, 
secondly, upon the amount of drying power required. In 
general, we require less of a manganese preparation than of 
a lead one, which is less energetic. The usual amounts 
necessary are : — 

Per cent. 
Manganese preparations 1-lJ 

Lead preparations ' 3-5 

they being kept with the oil at a boiling temperature for three 
hours ; then we shall get an oil drying within thirty-six 
hours. For quicker drying, larger proportions must be taken 
than those just given, and the percentages may rise for 
manganese preparations to 2 to 3 per cent., for lead prepara- 
tions to 5 to 8 per cent., and the boiling time to 5 to 8 hours. 
A further increase of the quantity of drier is impracticable, 
as larger amounts would partially saponify the oil. If other 
preparations, e.^., peroxide of manganese, are used, the above 
percentages must be increased in order to make up for the 
diminished amount of manganese in the drier. 



The Dutch chemist Mulder was the first to occupy himself 
seriously with the drying oils, and the changes they undergo 
on drying and boiling, and we have to thank him for some 
knowledge of the theory of the preparation of boiled oil. 

Linoleic acid forms about 80 per cent, of linseed oil, as 
already stated. When a great surface of it is exposed to the 
atmosphere it readily becomes oxidised to linoxic acid, a 
change which is rapid or slow in proportion to the freedom 
or the reverse with which air has access to the oil. The 
oxidation is accelerated if the oil is heated while in contact 
with oxygen, and we may proceed in three ways, acting on the 
oil with pure oxygen, or with air from which the oil absorbs 
that gas, or with metallic oxides or other compounds rich in 
oxygen. The oxidised linoleic acid thus obtained is the chief 
cause of the drying properties of all boiled hnseed oils. If 
linseed oil is boiled by itself in a wide shallow vessel, it becomes 
better drying than before by taking up oxygen, and if linseed 
oil is exposed for a long time to the air without being heated 
its drying properties are again somewhat increased, but never 
to the same extent as with boihng. It follows that to get dry- 
ing linseed oil a high temperature is required, and at the same 
time the action of oxygen in some form. 

Boiling linseed oil sets free more or less of its glycerine, 
and time and Ught and oxygen have a similar action. It is 
clear that boiling must begin, promote, and finally complete 
the separation, leaving behind more or less free linoleic acid. 


Every drying oil has its drying power increased by boiling, 
and it would appear that such is the more the case the 
longer the boiling has been kept up. 

In this boiling three different processes are involved: 1. 
All the anhydride of linoleic acid present in boiled oil does 
not need to dry, it is dry, elastic, and can dry no more. 2. 
All the free linoleic acid still present turns later to linoxic 
acid, which dries very slowly. 3. All the imchanged linoleine 
still present dries later to linoxine. The anhydrite gives an 
elastic india-rubber-like coat, the second resembles turpentine, 
and the third coat is like leather. 

Boiled linseed oil then in the main is more or less decom- 
posed Unoleine, containing the anhydride of linoleic acid, 
while glycerine is still combined in the imdecomposed part 
of the linoleine. In proportion to the duration of the boil 
there will be more or less oleine, palmitine and myristine 

In making boiled oil for ordinary painting we have first in 
view the necessity of obtaining a product which will dry as 
quickly and as hard as possible. This result is obtained, not 
when the boiUng oil is acted on with air or oxygen, but with 
oxidising compounds. By oxidation of the linoleic acid to 
linoxyn, and by compounds of linoleic acid the oil becomes 
rapidly hard drying, and if we boil linseed oil with red lead, 
sugar of lead, or litharge we get more or less linoleate of lead 
formed, and Hnoleate of manganese if we boil it with com- 
pounds of manganese. If we examine these salts, we find 
that linoleate of lead is a hard pulverisable substance, while 
manganese linoleate is tough and elastic. These circum- 
stances have to be noted by any one who wishes his boiled 
oil to answer the purpose for which it is intended. 

The researches of Mulder have shown that the formation 
of boiled oil proceeds — 

1. From the setting free of a part of the linoleic acid and 
other fatty acids of the linseed oil, 


2. From the formation of salts of the fatty acids by the 
bases of the driers. 

3. From the formation, or the creation of the possibility of 
the formation, of anhydride of linoleic acid. 

4. From the co-operation of two or more of the above. 
Every drying oil will give, without special treatment, the 
leathery linoxyn and free fatty acid, which are more quickly 
formed by boiling the oil. 


The theory of this and a description of the various driers 
have already been given, and I can therefore now proceed 
to a minute description of the processes. 

Boiling over the Open Fire or with Steam. 

Boiled oil can be made from ordinary mercantile oil, 
after the usual lying by, by boiling in iron or copper pans 
over an open fire or by means of steam. Care should be 
taken that the form of the pan is such that the oil offers 
as much surface as possible to the air. Otherwise the 
shape is immaterial. The size of the boiling vessels 
depends on the scale in which the manufacture is carried 
out, and all sorts and sizes are in use, from those of 
a capacity of 50 kilos, only to those holding 1,000 kilos. 
Small vessels are usually so arranged that they can easily 
be lifted off the fire, while the larger ones are bricked- 
in and provided with special safeguards against accidental 
fire, or flie boiling over of the oil. Among the safeguards 
against fire may be mentioned heavy iron lids, which are 
slung to the roof of the boiling house and are lowered 
from above, so as to close the mouths of the vessels if 
a conflagration is started and put out the flames by ex- 
cluding the air. Another plan is to provide means whereby 
the oil can be run off from the bottom of the pan to 
a cold receptacle at some distance. The arrangements 
directed q^gainst a boiling over of the oil, and especially 
a^inst any that may boil over finding its way into th^ 


fire, consist in a gutter surrounding the mouth of the 
pan, which catches the oil that overflows, and from which 
the overflow is led away by a pipe. Another way is to 
have the pan so large that there is no necessity to fill 
more than two-thirds with oil, and to brick it in so that 
the fire has no access to the empty part of the kettle, 
and that no oil which boils over can get into the fire. 
The pan can also be provided with a head from which 
a pipe leads the vapours into a chimney, where a small 
fire is maintained in order to burn them. 

The highest temperature which should be used in making 
boiled oil by means of the driers, specially mentioned above, 
is 230° to 250° C. A heat above this makes the oil too 
dark in colour. According to my latest experience, I re- 
commend the following boiling method for all boiled linseed 
oil, whatever driers may be being boiled with them. The 
linseed oil is heated, at first slowly, then more quickly, 
until it begins to froth. It is then quickly brought to the 
maximum temperature, at which its original golden yellow 
colour turns to a pale greenish yellow. Either the kettle 
is now lifted off the fire, or the fire is drawn, and the oil 
is allowed to cool to 130° to 150° C. At this temperature 
the desired driers are added in proper quantities, a little 
at a time. The boiling is then resumed until the oil is 
ready, and has the proper drying power. Care must be 
taken to keep the temperature between the limits, neither 
below 230° nor above 250°. This process gives pale boiled 
oil under all circumstances, while the ordinary method 
usually darkens the oil by the time it is ready. 

However the boiling has been conducted the oil must 
be left to stand at the conclusion of the operation, in order 
that the organic matter carbonised by the boiling and any 
undissolved driers may separate out, and settle to the 
bottom. As long as the oil is hot it is thin, and the 
specifically heavier bodies suspended in it, whatever may 


be their state of subdivision, will separate from it then much 
more readily than when it thickens on cooling. The sedi- 
ment consists of original impurities as well as substances 
added during or formed by the boiling, and the amount 
of it is naturally various for those reasons. It averages 
however from 5 to 8 per cent. Its colour depends on the 
quahty of oil used and may be white, yellowish, dark green 
or even black. According to my experience, white or yellow 
sediment is a mark of an inferior oil having been used. 
The sediment from a good oil is dark coloured, and should 
show no granular or crystalline structure. The drying 
power of the sediment, which constitutes the only loss if 
the oil has not been heated above 220° C, is very great 
indeed, on account of its richness in driers, so that it is 
used for numerous purposes. 

It is specially advantageous to substitute steam for a naked 
fire in the preparation of boiled oil, and if the use of steam 
for this purpose is not yet so common as it ought to be, the 
reason is that it does not pay to provide steam for this purpose 
alone. There must be a steam-engine, and hence the method 
is only practicable in places where much capital is or can be 
sunk in plant. Steam-boiling of oil is mostly practised in 
jacketed pans, but occasionally by means of a steam coil. 
The latter has the disadvantage as compared with the former 
arrangement that it is very difl&cult with it to get a high 
enough temperature. According to the construction of the 
apparatus the steam is or is not superheated. In the latter 
case its use is attended with difficulties and dangers, but 
most oil-boiUng factories are nowadays worked with super/- 
heated steam, so much has the management of it improved 
of late years. 

One of the most simple plants consists of a pan, wider than 
it is deep, and made of strong boiler-plate, and which has 
been tested to a pressure of from four and a half to five 
atmospheres, and has a double bottom. The pan is provided 


with a safety valve, an inlet and an outlet pipe for steam, 
and a pipe for running off condensed steam from the jacket. 
The pan is filled with oil and steam is passed through the 
jacket at a steady pressure of four and a half to five atmo- 
spheres. An improved form of this apparatus has a steam 
coil in the oil, as well as a jacket, and also a mechanical 
stirrer, so as to increase the surface which the oil exposes to 
the air. 

Another plan is to superheat steam by means of an ordinary 
superheater or system of piping, and then to blow it direct 
through the oil to be boiled. The temperature of the steam 
must of course be known and be carefully regulated. 

Zwieger's Process. 

H. Zwieger of Zwickau has patented in Austria Hungary 
(No. 1,768) a process for making boiled oil and oil varnishes, 
in which the steam proceeding from the fusion apparatus at 
about 350° C. is used for boiling. 

Lehmann's Superheater. 

The process of Holzwich and Zimmermann (D.R.P. 9,444), 
which shall be specially mentioned later on in tins section, 
has lately been improved by R. Lehmann of Dresden. 
Lehmann uses steam superheaters of the following con^strue^ 
tion. In contrast to most or perhaps all the older tjrpes, 
consisting either of sets of tubes connected by elbows or 
stuffing boxes, or coils welded together into a single piece, 
Lehmann uses in his improved superheater elastic joints so 
that the superheater can expand in the fire without risk of 
becoming cracked or leaky at the joints. Each tube is double, 
i.e., consists of two co-axial tubes. The inner tube opens 
near one end of the outer, which is closed. The steam flows 
from one inner tube into the tube surrounding it, from -that 
into the next inner tube, then into the tube surrounding that. 



and so on. This increases the exposure of the steam in tha 
superheater to twice the usual amount without increasing 

Fig. 9b. 

the^ number of tubes or the space occupied by the apparatus. 
In other words, this superheater combines great heating 


surface with economy of space, and hence of fuel, while at 
the same time that the construction secures those advantages 
it improves the superheating effect, and makes the substitu- 
tion of fresh parts in case of accidents very easy. 

Fig. 9 shows Lehmann's superheater arranged below the 
boiling kettle, so that the gases which have heated the 
superheater can help to heat the oil before they finally pass 
into the chimney. 

Andres' Process. 

According to Andres, it is unnecessary in boiled-oil making 
to use steam, as hot air will do as well. If his method is to 
be adopted a fan is used to drive a stream of air through a 
superheater, then through the oil, and thence back to the 
fan, and so round and round, always working with the same 
lot of air. 

Walton's Process. 

According to an English patent by F. Walton, the inventor 
of linoleum, a process for boiling oil consists in heating the 
linseed oil in wide open pans by steam. It is then raised 
into a chamber heated by steam, where it is beaten by paddle 
wheels. Being thus scattered through the air in drops, it 
offers a very large surface for the absorption of oxygen. The 
chamber may have glass windows so that the light of the 
sun may co-operate in producing the effect. The oil finally 
collects in a gutter on the floor of the chamber, whence it 
can be returned to the pans if more heating is still required. 

Vincent's Process. 

Vincent's apparatus for boiling oil by steam is a pan, pre- 
ferably of copper, with a circular transverse section. Its 
depth is about the same as its diameter, and its bottom is 
convex. Up to its middle the pan is surrounded by a strong 
iron jacket for the admission of steam. Both pan and jacket 


must be capable of standing a pressure of eight atmospheres. 
The mouth of the pan is closed by a head provided with a 
manhole. Through a stufl&ng box in the middle of the head 
passes a vertical hollow cylinder with a solid one inside it. 
These rotate in opposite directions, and operate the stirrers 
which work up the oil. The combustible vapours escaping 
from the hot oil are led beneath the pan to economise fuel. 

The oil to be boiled, which is first stocked for some time 
in large vats, is heated to about 35° C, and then pumpisd 
into, the pan. Full steam is then turned into the jacket, 
and the stirrer is set in motion. When the pressure has 
risen to two to three atmospheres, air is admitted. The oil 
immediately froths and swells up greatly, and the mass 
previously a dark brown becomes a pale yellow. If a darker 
oil is wanted the driers — the choice of which is generally 
regarded as a secret — ^are rubbed up with oil and poured into 
the pan in a thin stream through a funnel. The proportion 
is 375 grammes of driers to every 50 kilos, of oil. When the 
driers have been added, nothing more has to be done but to 
see that the steam pressure does not sink below six atmo- 
spheres. It is best to keep it at seven atmospheres, so that 
the air pump which drives the air through the oil, and also 
the stirrers, may not stop. Vincent has not ascertained how 
much air is necessary to oxidise any given quantity of oil. 
Some oils, as a matter of fact, require more air than others, 
but the usual course is to drive in as much as the oil will 
take up without priming and coming over into the tube 
which leads away the vapours caused by the heating. After 
treatment for about four hours the oil can be run out of the 
pan into a vat in which it is allowed to stand until it has 
completely deposited all sediment. 


Drs. Schrader and Dumeke have made numerous re- 
searches, as a result of which they have discovered that 


ozone, after a brief contact with raw linseed oil, not only 
converts it into ** boiled oil," but bleaches it at the same 
time. The ozonised oil is completely bleached by a single 
day's exposure to light and air in shallow vessels. The 
" boiled oil " thus prepared from raw unbleached linseed oil 
is said to be as colouriess as water, to dry quickly, and to be 
made without heat and with perfect safety, and without any 
loss or waste. The ozone is aspirated or forced through the 
oil in suitable vessels, and can be prepared by any of the 
known processes. 


The patent of Miithel and Liitke (D.E.P. 29,961) protects 
the manufacture of boiled oil by treating the raw oil with 
various gases, which will give nascent oxygen on electrolysis. 
Such mixtures are chlorine and steam, sulphurous and nitrous 
acids, nitrogen, oxygen and steam and nitrous oxide and air. 
One of these mixtures is exposed in the apparatus shown in 
fig. 10 to a long and powerful silent dark electrical discharge, 
whereby a high degree of oxidation is given to the oil, if the 
quantity of gas is sufficient. It is impossible to give an 
exact chemical formula of the product formed, as it depends 
on the gaseous mixture used, and on the proportions of its 
ingredients. Thus if chlorine and steam are used we get 
hydrochloric acid and oxygen, and with oxygen and sulphur- 
ous acid they must be present in such proportions that the 
electrical discharge can produce SO. It appears to be ad- 
vantageous, as giving the highest oxidation, to have the 
oxygen-compound in the gaseous mixture in excess. The 
apparatus used by the inventors to prepare the oxidised 
gases consists of a series of so-called condensers, in which 
the gases are exposed to the electrical action for a very long 
time, see figs. 10 and 11. 

The electricity is produced by a dynamo, into the circuit 



of which the primary coil of the induction apparatus is 
inserted. The secondary coil is connected up with the 
condensers, which are arranged according to the E.M.F. 
required. Fig. 10 shows the complete plant. From the 
steam boiler A a main pipe takes to the cylinder of the steam 
engine; from a two branches, h and c proceed. Steam is 
carried by h to the coil S in the container B, to heat the 

oil therein which is admitted by the pipe c. At the bottom 
of B is a flattened coil D, full of perforations, and which is 
continued to form the tube g. This tube communicates 
with the oxidation apparatus P, to which the gas to be 
oxidised is brought by the pipe h. Fig. 11 represents an 



oxidation apparatus in detail. It is made of glass and con* 
sists of two tubes, A and B, one inside the other. The two 
are fixed together hj x x. A is closed below and is enclosed 
in an iron vessel C, and rests on the somewhat projecting 
rim of the latter. The axis of B is occupied by a tube E, 
which opens into the space between A and B and brings in 
the gas to be oxidised. The gas then passes out through D 
into another oxidiser, and so through the entire battery. 
The parts shaded in the figure are filled with any good con- 

FlG. 11. 

ducting material, and connected with the dynamo by the 
wires + and - . In fig. 11 the apparatus is represented 
diagrammatically only. The boiler B contains one or more 
paddle wheels C, on an axle passing through a stuffing box 
at a?. 

The practical carrying out of the process is as follows : 
When the apparatus is set to work B is half filled with the 
linseed oil to be oxidised, by means of c ; e is then shut, and 
the oil is heated by means of the steam coil to from 60° to 
80" C. The vessel B is then connected up, by mean^ of d^ 


with the air-pump, which will give a 73 mm. vacuum. The 
oxidation apparatus is next put into the dynamo-circuit, 
while a mixture of sulphurous acid (SOg) with oxygen and 
air in equal volumes is passing through it. At the same 
time g is opened, so that the gas oxidised in P is driven 
through the linseed oil in fine streams, these being a partial 
vacuum above the oil. All the time the gas is passing the 
paddle' wheel is at work, making the oil expose as much 
surface to the gas as possible by energetically stirring it up. 
This greatly accelerates the decomposition of the compounds 
of the fatty acids, and in a correspondingly short time we 
get a pale thinly flowing product, which readily dries in the 
air to a tough and soHd mass. The same success attends 
the use of a mixture of nitrous oxide (NgO) with three- 
quarters of its volume of. atmospheric air, or of nitrous oxide 

The use of the other gaseous mixtures above mentioned 
may also be resorted to, and the patentees keep them before 
them, as it is a question of producing from any suitable 
materials, and by means of the silent electrical discharge, 
either nascent oxygen or highly oxidising compounds of 
oxygen, the latter being decomposed by contact with the hot 
oil. The products of decomposition pass away through the 
air pump together with a little unused gaseous mixture, and 
the whole can either be regenerated or used to help the firing 
of the steam boiler. When the oxidation is finished, a point 
which is ascertained by taking samples from time to time, 
the pipe is closed, the stirrer is stopped, and a short time 
afterwards the pipe d is closed and E is opened. Steam 
now enters the vacuum, and drives the boiled oil through/, 
which is opened for the purpose, into the apparatus, W, 
which is itself full of very dilute ammonia, and is heated by 
the coil S' which is fed by the exhaust from S. The oil 
passes up through this ammoniacal water, which frees it 
from any adhering acid. It then passes direct through h 



into the stock vats. It may pass through a refrigerating 
apparatus on its way thither if it is preferred that it should 
do so. 


All apparatus or utensils which come into contact either 
with raw or with boiled linseed oil must be made of, or lined 

Fig. 12. 

with, lead, because we thereby save adding litharge to the oil 
The linseed oil used must be of good pale quality, and have 
been air bleached, if a pale boiled oil is expected. The boiled 
oil is made by an apparatus represented in figures 12, 13 and 
14. Fig. 12 is a bird's-eye view ; fig. 13 a vertical section, 
and fig. 14 an elevation. The apparatus consists of three 
main parts, viz,, (1) a box. A, of black sheet iron for heating 
the linseed oil; (2) an iron receptacle, B, hned with lead; 



and (3) two closed iron boilers, GG, lined with lead. The oil 
flows from B through the cook F and the funnel g into 
the uppermost box a, passes then through the opening G 
into the box a directly underneath, and so through all the 
boxes a a, etc., till it gets into the lowest box a. Thence 
it passes through the tube dd, and the branch tube there - 

Fig. 13. Fig. 14. 

from, ddy which is provided with cocks, into one of the iron 
cyUnders, GG, lying below. The air in this escapes by the 
air-cock k, which must be kept open during the filling. 
When such a boiler, G, is filled with linseed oil, the oil is 
pumped back again up into the reservoir through the leaden 
pipe e, and travels the circuit from A to G over and over 
again, till converted into boiled oil. The pumping is done 


by compressed air, forced by an air-pump into the cylinder 
of oil, arid which drives the latter up the tube ee. Two 
boilers are hence necessary for continuous work, so that one 
can be being pumped out while the other is being filled. 
The combination of this apparatus with the mel-ting apparatus 
is with the object of utilising the air, which escapes at x at 
a temperature of still about 130° C. for heating the linseed 
oil. This air passes through h into A, where it helps heat 
up the oil passing through to the temperature required. We 
recognise by the consistency of the oil arriving in B out of 
C how far the process has gone, and whether the oil has to 
be sent round again. The handles, h, in the sides of the box, 
A, are stoppers, whereby it is made possible to inspect the 
surfaces, a a, over which the linseed oil runs, and to clean 
them when necessary. To lead off the vapours arising from 
the boiling oil, which are bad for the eyes, we have the adjust- 
able valve i, which leads these combustible gases into the 

A German Patent Process. 

The object of this invention (D.E.P. 12,825) is to convert 
linseed or other drying oil into boiled oil by exposing it to 
the action of hot air until it has acquired a syrupy consistency. 

Fig. 15 is the ground plan, fig. 16 a view and partly a 
section of the apparatus used for the treatment of oil. AA is 
a series of reservoirs to receive the oil. Each of these can 
be supplied with hot air by the tubes BBB. These air tubes 
are divided into radiating branches, which are so arranged 
that they hang directly over the bottom of the reservoir, 
without however touching it. These branch tubes are per- 
forated, so that the air conveyed by them passes in thin 
streams through the oil. The tubes B of the various reser- 
voirs are connected with a tube, B', which is provided with 
hot air straight from the coil C of the heater D. 

The coil C is connected with a pressure pump E (a Eoot*s 
blower is to be recommended), to drive the air on its course. 






T is a oook to regulate the amount of air supplied to the ooil 
by the blower. G is a loaded safety valve ; the branch tubes, 
BBB, are provided with similar cocks, F, for regulating the 
supply of air to the individual oil reservoirs, and to cut off the 
air from each as soon as the operation is concluded in it. 
The cocks F and F are three-way cocks, of a construction 
shown in fig. 17. They are so arranged that they can pass 
either all or part of the air current away into the open air. 

If, for example, all the reservoirs are in use together, the 
supply of air must be at a maximum, and if the air is heated 
to about 312° C. the cock F must be partly open. If the 
temperature of the air issuing from the coil is above 312° C. 
the cock must be wider open, so as to lead less of the air from 
the blower into the exhaust-pipe F and more into the coil. 
By this, taking more air into the heater, burning of the oil is 

Fig. 17. 

prevented. The temperature of the oil should never be above 
206° C. It is most convenient so to arrange the process that 
the oil in different reservoirs is in different stages of progress, 
so that the reservoirs can be emptied singly and refilled when 
the process is finished without interfering with the work of 
others, and so a continuous action of the battery is ensured. 
As soon as the treatment of the oil in one reservoir is finished, 
the cook F' is turned, the supply of hot air is cut off, where- 
by it is prevented that the temperature of the oil in the other 



reservoirs should be made too great. If, for example, the 
reservoirs contain 227 litres, so much hot air is passed into 
it as will raise the temperature of the oil to about 120** 
C. This temperature is kept up for about five hours, and 
it is then raised to about 205°, taking care however that- 
this latter temperature is not exceeded. It is maintained 
in its t\im for from five to six hours, to drive off the sharp 
vapours. As a sign of the conclusion of the process, the 
cessation of the evolution of these fumes serves very well. 
When they cease to come off, the oil thickens suddenly 

Fig. 18. 

to a syrupy consistency. When this point is reached, the 
hot air is turned off, and the oil is run through the cock a 
into the storage vat. When cold the oil is quite free from 
the fatty substances and has the appearance of a pale jelly. 
The vapours expelled consist principally of oleine. They 
can be condensed and collected for the various uses of that 
substance. Fig. 18 shows a modification of the pipe bring- 
ing the hot air into the oil. Here the pipe ends in a T piece, 
not perforated at the sides, but open at each end, so that the 
hot air passes through ihe oil in two streams. This form is 
used with oil-holders, which are about twice as long as they 
are wide. 



All boiled oils are subjected not only to a very large number 
of different kinds of adulteration, but in their manufacture 
such methods and processes can be resorted to as to have an 
unfavourable effect on the quality of the oil, and are adopted 
for various reasons, chiefly, of course, for the purpose of 
diminishing the cost of production. 

Good boiled oil can only be got by boiling pure stocked 
linseed oil at a temperature not below 132° C. under the 
action of oxygen. It is indifferent whether this temperature 
is produced by a naked fire or by steam, and whether the 
oxygen is added through the agency of chemical compounds 
of oxygen, or by the introduction of air or pure oxygen. 
Boiled oil is, as has been said more than once already, 
oxidised linseed oil. It is in the main more or less decom* 
posed linoleine containing the anhydride of linoleic acid, while 
it contains glycerine in the undecomposed portion of the 
linoleine. According to the duration of the boil there are 
present more or less oleine, palmitine and myristine, and 
the longer the boil the more the linoleine is changed into 
linoxyn and the quicker the oil will dry. Hence the nature 
of the boiled oil depends upon the boiUng time, and also on 
the amount of oxygen incorporated with it both the rapidity 
with which it dries and the durability of the coats which it 

A good boiled oil must be somewhat thicker than the raw 
oil, but must not be too thick, or it will become necessary to 
thin it with oil of turpentine before it can be painted with in 


thin coats. If it can only be applied thickly the coats never 
dry through, and the paint is sure to crack sooner or later. 

The colour of boiled oil depends on its manufacture, and as 
a rule is pale or brownish yellow or reddish brown, never 
dark brown. Boiled oils prepared with the help of steam 
are usually paler than those boiled over a naked fire, and 
are manganese-prepared oils more usually than lead-prepared 
oils, and come nearest in colour to the products oxidised by 
air or oxygen. The duration of the boil is also not without 
influence on the colour. The longer the boil and the higher 
the temperatiire the darker the oil, from the carbonisation of 
the solid organic substances suspended in it. 

Many makers of boiled oil heat the oil for too short a time, 
to save expense of manufacture, and so put upon the market 
a badly drjdng product. Such oil is generally very pale for 
boiled oil, but dries nearly as slowly as the raw oil and does 
not fulfil its purpose properly. Such a product can only be 
detected by comparing the time it takes in drying with that 
of an oil known to be satisfactory, by painting with both at 
the same time and drying under the same conditions. 

The smell of good boiled oil is that of linseed oil with a 
slight scent of burning, such as that characterising the vapours 
evolved from the boihng oil. It may be unpleasant but it 
should in no case be nauseous, or have any resemblance to 
the odour of resin oil or fish oil; if it has it is probably 
adulterated with these oils, a conclusion which can be 
confirmed by the tests given below. If the boiled oil has 
been burnt by overheating, the fact betrays itself by an 
empyreumatic and nauseous smell, and a dark and dirty 
brown colour. 

The taste is a good test of a boiled oil. In a gooJ oil, 
except that it is bitter and more disagreeable, it resembles 
that of the raw oil. Adulteration with fish or resin oil is 
detected more quickly and certainly by the taste than in any 
other way. 


Boiled oil must be clear, without being rendered turbid by 
suspended solid matter. If it is not oleaj, it must be left for 
at least a fortnight at perfect rest in a fairly weirm place. In 
this time it will have become quite clear, unless it is adul- 
terated with resin oil, and the amount of sediment will show 
whether the oil is good or bad. Even well-stocked boiled 
oil gradually deposits, but even after months the sediment 
will not exceed i per cent., and is not worth taking into 
account. Many makers, however, only give the boiled oil 
time to clarify superficially, and sell it a few days after it is 
made. Such oils come turbid to the consumer. They will 
certainly clear if he will keep them for from two to four 
weeks, but the amount of sediment may amount to 7 per 
cent., and the boiled oil must be considered as of very inferior 

The drying power is one of the chief tests of a boiled oil. 
It ought to dry in thin coats on wood, glass, or metal, in 
twenty-four hours to such a point that although still sticky 
it cannot be wiped off, and in another twenty-four hours it 
ought to have dtied solid, retaining, however, some elasticity 
and softness. If it dries quicker than this, so much the 
better, but if it dries slower, that is a sign that it has either 
been improperly prepared, or that it is adulterated. It is 
possible that it has never been boiled at all, but prepared by 
cold processes, i.e., by being mixed with from 6 to 10 per 
cent, of the so-called ** extract". Such a product has no 
claim to be called boiled oil, for to make that a high tem- 
perature and the addition of oxygen are both indispensable, 
and cannot be replaced by mechanical admixture of the 
linseed oil even with the strongest driers. 

The commonest adulterants of boiled oil are colophony, 
resin oil, and fish oil, all having the single object of lowering 
the cost of production and of offering under the temptation 
of a lower price an article which only in the rarest cases will 
answer the expectations of the buyer. All the above adul- 


terations radically affect the drying power. Boiled oil 
adulterated with colophony and resin gives coats which 
after any period become sticky with the heat of the hand, 
and in spite of their softness soon come off. Boiled oil 
adulterated with fish oil will not dry at all and is absolutely 
unusable. The adulterations named may be detected by the 
following means. 


Boiled oil adulterated with colophony is generally thicker 
than it ought to be. It dries in from thirty-six to forty-eight 
hours to an apparently solid film, which, however, becomes 
sticky by the heat of the hand laid upon it. The coats readily 
collect dust, and become grey and dirty, and exposure to the 
weather soon destroys the coat, which crumbles away. If we 
shake up boiled oil suspected of adulteration with colophony 
with 95 per cent, spirit at frequent intervals during a few 
hours, and then allow the mixture to stand, the colophony 
can be detected in the tincture after decanting off. To effect 
this the tincture is distilled till all the spirit has evaporated. 
This point is easily recognised if the spirit was weighed before 
use, by the weight of the distillate. If the residue has more 
than one-fortieth of the spirit the adulteration is resin if the 
residue is sohd, resin oil if it is liquid. The result is of course 
quantitative, and the nature of the adulterant can be confirmed 
by appealing to its smell and taste. 

A somewhat more complicated test for colophony is to 
boil the oil for a few minutes with 95 per cent, spirit, draw 
off the spirit when the mass is cold, and add to it a solution 
of acetate of lead. If the oil was pure, the result is a 
turbidity merely, but if it contained colophony we get a 
clotted white precipitate which by repeated washing and 
fusing can be converted into pure colophony. 

Kesin Oil. 
Besin oil is the commonest of all adulterants of boiled oil, 
nd can be detected in most cases simply by its smell. The 


resin-oil smell becomes more distinct if a few drops of the oil 
are rubbed between the palms of the hands until it is warm. 
Taste affords also an excellent means of detection to any one 
who knows the characteristic rough and nauseous taste of 
resin oil, of which very small quantities may be at once and 
with certainty detected by this means. 

If boiled oil containing resin oil is mixed with dilute 
sulphuric or hydrochloric acid, shaken, and then left to 
stand, these show themselves in the white lead or manga- 
nese precipitates formed, whitish sticky lumps, while with 
pure boiled oil only the first-mentioned precipitates appear, 
and the oil appears fully cleared in a few hours at most. 
The oil-hydrometer can also be used. Pure manganese- 
boiled oil shows 26° and lead- boiled oil 24°, while the 
adulterated oil will be from 20° to 22° only. 

Fish Oil. 

Adulteration with fish oil may also be detected both 
chemically and by taste and smell. If we mix ten parts 
of the suspected oil with three parts of sulphuric acid by 
stirring, and then allow oil and acid to separate by standing, 
there will be a white precipitate containing the metallic 
drier, and the oil will have assumed a dark brown, the acid 
orange-yellow or yellowish-brown colour, if fish oil is 
present. If on the other hand the oil is unadulterated, 
it will be green, turning later to a brownish green, while 
the acid has a nearly pure yellow colour. If the suspected 
oil is treated with pure chlorine, it will become dark brown 
at once, and black ultimately if fish oil is present. Un- 
adulterated oil on the other hand is bleached more or less 
by the chlorine. Chlorine bleaches all vegetable fats, but 
turns all animal fats, with the single exception of neat's foot 
oil, darker and darker, and finally black. If boiled oil is 
mixed with one-fifth of its volume of caustic soda lye of 



1*34 3p. gr. the emulsion formed is yellow with pore oil, 
but red if fish oil is present. 

Other Adulterations. 

When boiled oil is very dear we find occasional adultera- 
tion with turpentine, and even with benzole. If a few drops 
of the oil are rubbed between the palms of the hands, the 
smell of turpentine or benzole becomes recognisable. A 
more certain means, however, of detecting the adulteration 
is to distil the oil, when the volatile turpentine or benzole 
easily comes over, leaving the linseed oil in the still. If the 
amount distilled was first weighed the test can be made a 
quantitative one. 

It is easy to see whether a boiled oil has been prepared 
by the use of lead manganese or other metallic drier. If the 
reagents employed to test for them give negative results, i.e. 
no precipitates, we can only conclude that the oil was pre- 
pared with oxygen or atmospheric air. All oils prepared 
with metals contain linoleate of whatever metal has been 
employed, and if dilute sulph\irio or hydrochloric acid is 
added to the oil, the metal is either dissolved by the acid or 
precipitated, and in either case is separated from the oil. 

The oil to be tested is mixed with about its own volume of 
dilute sulphuric acid, and notice is taken whether a precipi- 
tate forms or not. If a white precipitate goes down, and 
turns black when treated with sulphuretted hydrogen, the 
boiled oil contains lead. If no precipitate is formed, but the 
acid becomes itself somewhat coloured, and blackened by 
the subsequent addition of sulphuretted hydrogen, the oil 
contains copper. If the sulphuric acid precipitate is not 
blackened by sulphuretted hydrogen, no lead is present, and 
further testing must be resorted to, first with ammonia and 
then with sulphide of ammonium. This reagent gives a 
black precipitate in the presence of iron, a fiesh-coloured one 
with manganese, and a white one with zinc. Further in- 


formation is obtained if we treat the original acid solution 
with a solution of carbonate of soda in water. If this gives 
a dirty green precipitate, which soon turns black on exposure 
to the air, iron is present. This may be confirmed by treat- 
ing the acid solution with ferrocyanide of potassium, which 
gives a blue precipitate with iron. A white precipitate with 
the carbonate of soda, turning dark brown in the air, shows 
manganese. If zinc is present, the acid solution from the 
boiled oil will give with ammonia a white precipitate, readily 
soluble in excess "of ammonia. 

W. Fox has made known a process for detecting raw 
linseed oil as an adulterant of boiled oil. It is based upon 
the decomposition of the oil on boiling, the fatty acids being 
oxidised and the glycerine forming compounds with acryhc 
acid, which escape and cause the well-known smell. 

Oils are frequently put on the market either consisting of 
boiled oil adulterated with raw oil, or more frequently of raw 
oil containing a little liquid siccative. Such products have 
naturally comparatively small drying power. To test for 
glycerine, 5 grammes of the oil are saponified in the usual 
way, the soap is decomposed by hydrochloric acid, and, after 
standing, the acid liquid containing the glycerine is run off 
from under the layer of fatty acids, made strongly alkaline, 
and then mixed with crystals of permanganate of potash till 
the solution remains a light red. The excess of permangan- 
ate is next decomposed with a little sodium sulphite, the 
precipitated peroxide of manganese is filtered off, and the 
filtrate is made acid with acetic acid, raised nearly to boiling, 
and then treated with solution of calcium chloride. If this 
forms a white precipitate, glycerine was originally present 
and has formed oxalic acid according to the equation : — 

CjHA + 30a = 3H2O + COa + HaC204. 
The oxalate of lime can be converted into carbonate by 
ignition, and weighed. Every 100 parts of the carbonate 
correspond to 92 of glycerine. 



In making Chinese drying oil by H. X.' Basse's patent, 
coarsely but uniformly powdered bone-charcoal, previously 
purified with hydrochloric acid, is placed in a narrow-necked 
funnel, and old stocked linseed oil is filtered through it into 
large shallow pans of lead containing crystalline basic acetate 
of lead, red lead, and borate of manganese. The mass is 
exposed to diffused daylight under glass plates, and the 
leaden pans are kept at 120° C. for six hours, while a stream 
of air at the same temperature and containing 16 per cent, of 
steam is passed through them. The oil is then placed in 
shallow leaden dishes which are piled up in large closed iron 
cylinders, so as to allow free circulation of air over all the 
surface of the oil. In the upper part of the cylinder is placed 
a wide-necked flask containing chloroform, 2 kilos, of this 
for every 50 kilos, of the prepared oil. A current of air at 
100° C. is then passed through the cylinder from above 
downwards, issuing from a regulatable valve. After eight to 
ten hours the oil becomes thick and tough, and it is then 
heated with American oil of turpentine, first heated to 300° 
C. in closed vessels with 10 per cent, of its weight of absolute 
alcohol. This mixture is allowed to cool to 100° C. and is 
then mixed with its own weight of the thickened oil. 

The yellow solution formed is at first turbid, and is allowed 
to clarify at a low temperature in iron containers. 

If a httle of this drying oil is added to linseed oil or to an 
oil-paint it gives it the best drying qualities. On standing 


it removes all vegetable albuminous bodies from drying oils. 
With linseed oil it gives a straw yellow mixture which dries 
in from eighteen to twenty-four hours to a tough india- 
rubbery elastic coat. 

Cement-Boiled Oil. 

By the process of C. Neumann (D.R.P. 25,139) a cheap 
durable and paintable varnish, soluble in water, and intended 
to replace ordinary boiled oil for all purposes is manufactured. 
It consists essentially in partly saponifying oil and resins, or 
solutions of them both, with water-glass, then boiling, and 
completing the saponification with ammonia. The varnish 
is separated out by adding a concentrated solution of alum 
and chromate of potash, and after dilution with water is 
ready for use. To explain the process more exactly, the 
following description is given of the manufacture of cement- 
boiled oil. The ingredients may naturally be replaced by 
others of similar nature without any of the steps of the 
process requiring modification. 

For the preparation of 500 parts of the preparation we 
treat 16 parts of Portland cement with 160, or 16 per cent., 
potash lye. After five to six hours the insoluble lime com- 
pounds have settled to the bottom, while the silicates in the 
cement have gone into solution, forming water-glass with the 

The lye, which has become about 4 per cent, heavier, is now 
boiled for about two hours with 100 parts of linseed oil and 
40 parts of Burgimdy pitch. At the end of this time 40 parts 
more of lye are added, but 20 per cent, lye this time, and the 
boiling is continued for another haK-hour. 

The hot lye saponifies the greater part of the Burgundy 
pitch and the oil^ and the saponification is now finished by 
stirring in about 4 parts of alcohol and 3i parts of ammonia. 

By this saponification an extraordinarily intimate com- 


bination or mixture of the material is secured, so that a 
very homogeneous product is obtained. 

Next we prepare a concentrated solution of 4 parts of alum 
and 1 part of bichromate of potash, which is diluted till the 
hyacinth-red colour changes to a chrome yellow. This fairly 
consistent solution is gradually stirred into the above sa- 
ponified mass, till the result is a fairly thick mass of a clear 
brown colour. 

This mass is then treated with 400 parts more, and the 
whole is again boiled up. The product is then ready. The 
addition of the salt solution causes on the one hand a coagu- 
lation, effected by the chromic acid, and on the other a 
formation of palmitate of alumina by the action of the alum 
on the fats or resins. This palmitate of alumina dissolves in 
the ammonia present, but when the varnish dries becomes 
insoluble, and so produces a durable coat. 

Carbolic Varnish. 

To make a preservative varnish for painting wood, so as to 
keep it from mould and dry rot, and also for painting over 
walls which show growths of mould, dissolve in an iron 
kettle 10 lb. of borax and 5 b. of caustic soda in 40 gals, of 
water. Then boil, and while boiling stir in 45 lb. of shellac. 
When the shellac is dissolved, let the solution cool till it is 
lukewarm and then add 20 lb. of 90-95 per cent, carbolic 
acid. This varnish is applied lukewarm, and according to 
the material to be painted with it is diluted with hot water 
up to about one- third of its volume. This varnish is perhaps 
a substitute for carbolineum. 

Tar Varnish. 

In a box heated by a steam pipe or in a pan over a fire 
keep 40 kilos, of tar at 70° C, with constant stirring for some 
time to dry it as far as possible. Then stir in, keeping up 


the temperature, 40 kilos, of hydraulio lime or of Portland 
or Eoman cement. The mass gradually becomes saponified, 
and in spite of the large amount of cement added to it remains 
quite liquid, and even when cold it is soft and smeary. It is 
ready for use except that it has to be used warm. If it is 
attempted to use ordinary quicklime instead of hydraulic 
lime, even 25-30 per cent, of it added to the tar will at once 
solidify it so that painting with it is impossible. By the 
saponification of the tar by the cement the volatile oils of 
the tar are retained, so that a varnish is got which resists 
weather perfectly, while ordinary tar weathers off in time. 

Neither hydrochloric nor nitric acid attacks the taj-varnish 
above described, and it will not only resist the weather but 
mould. It is thus excellent for woodwork exposed to water 
or in places where it is subject to the attacks of mould or dry 

The tar preparation has also the property of drying soft 
so that the coats cannot crack or get brittle. It is a good 
application for roof-tiles, and prevents them from being 
damaged by frost, as they are made waterproof. It is also 
good for earthenware pipes. 



Pigments come from all the three natural kingdoms, animal, 
vegetable and mineral. Some of them occur ready-made in 
nature, while others are manufactured from natural or arti- 
ficial raw materials or both. On the whole they may be 
classed as : — 

1. Inorganic or mineral colours. 

2. Organic colours. 

3. Mixtures of the two. 

The value of all pigments depends upon the following pro- 
perties, or on the extent to which they are possessed : — 

1. Shade of Colour, — The purer this is, i.e., the nearer it 
is to the spectrum colour, the better. The shade is always 
estimated by comparison with a standard sample. 

2. Body or Intensity. — This is determined by seeing how 
much of the pigment is needed to give the same result as a 
given quantity of the standard pigment, of course on a sur- 
face of the same size as that to which the standard has been 

The body of glazing colours can be determined colorimet- 
rically, by dissolving equal weights of a standard colour and 
that to be tested in equal weights of the same solvent, and 
comparing the heights of two columns, one of each solution, 
which give the same intensity. The body is inversely pro- 
portional to the depth of Hquid required to produce any given 
intensity of colour. Another plan is to dilute the two solu- 
tions till their intensity of colour is the same. Then the 


body of the pigment under test is to that of the standard 
inversely as the quantity of each present. Two simple glass 
burettes of equal size answer for this kind of test. Into one 
is put a known quantity of the pigment to be tested, into the 
other the same quantity of the standard. The deeper is then 
diluted with the solvent till it has the same intensity as the 
other. Then if, for example, the volume of the standard liquid 
is twice that of the other, the standard pigment has twice the 
body of the other. 

Another method, chiefly used for body colours, consists in 
mixing the finely powdered pigment with a white solid having 
no action on it, and comparing the colour of the mixture with 
a similar one made from the standard pigment. A good 
substance to use for this purpose is kaolin or white porcelain 
clay. Stein carries out the test by adding kaolin, 5 grammes 
at a time, to 500 grammes of the pigment under test. If the 
hue is different for the same quantity of kaolin, the bodies of 
the two pigments are different. In this case the deeper is 
mixed with more kaolin till both are the same. Then the 
respective bodies of the two colours are in the same pro- 
portion as the two total amounts of kaolin added to them. 

3. Fastness. — Many pigments behave very differently to 
air, light, soap, alkalis, acids, bleaching agents, etc. The 
greater the resistance offered by a colouring matter or an 
object coloured with it to the above agencies, the faster tho 
pigment is. There are great differences in the amount of 
fastness expected according to the purpose to which the 
colouring matter is to be applied. For example, artists' pig- 
ments have to be permanent for many years, while a green 
or yellow pigment intended for house-painting will have lost 
its colour partially or entirely in only a few years. 

It cannot of course be considered a part of my duty to give 
descriptions of the manufacture and use of every colouring 
matter used, because such information must be sought in 
special books, such as Bersch's Fahrikation der Mineral und 


Lack Farben, Fahrikation der Erdfarhen, and Fabrikation 
der Anilinfarhen (published by A. Hartleben, Vienna and 
Leipzig), where it will be found exhaustively given. I con- 
fine myself to mentioning the separate categories, each with 
its chief representatives, and to showing how the consumer 
can test them for fastness and purity. It is clear that this 
cannot be done exhaustively, and for those who wish still 
further information I recommend Dr. Dammer's Lexicon der 
Verfalschungeriy of which I have partly made use in writing 
this part of my book. 

The categories are as follow : colours of antimony, arsenic, 
barium, lead, cadmium, chromium, iron, cobalt, copper, man- 
ganese, mercury, zinc, animal colours and vegetable colours 

Antimony Colours. 

Antimony cinnabar gives with oils a fine red colour. It 
is soluble in hydrochloric acid, but insoluble in other dilute 
acids, and is destroyed by alkalis. 

Arsenic Colours. 

Eealgar, red arsenic, ruby sulphur, are hardly used now, 
and orpiment. 

Barium Colours. 

Heavyspar is in pigment manufacture a much used 
addition to colours. As the body of finely ground heavy- 
spar, especially in oil, is very small, pigments mixed with 
it lose considerably in value, and every addition of heavy- 
spar not distinctly revealed by the manufacturer must be 
regarded and treated as a fraud. In the case of those 
pigments which cannot be made without heavyspar, such 
as Victoria green, the quantity of heavyspar is generally 
guaranteed by the manufacturer. 

Heavyspar is distinguished by its inactivity and its in* 


solubility in acids or alkalis. These properties, together 
with its white colour, make it very suitable for toning down 
dark shades, or for making cheaper white pigments with 
white lead, lithopone, or zinc white. The colour of heavy- 
spar is a very important test of its quality. The whiter and 
the finer ground it is the better. As many varieties of 
heavyspar contain gypsum or celestine (strontiimi sulphate), 
we often find these bodies in the ground heavyspar of 
commerce without being able to regard them as adultera- 
tions. Besides gypsum and celestine, natural heavyspar 
almost invariably contains oxide of iron, alumina, and silica, 
but not as a rule in important quantities. 

Lead Codours. 

White lead varies in body according to the method of 
preparation, i.e., according to its molecular constitution. 
That made by the Dutch method has more covering power 
than English, which again has more body than French 
white lead. White lead leaves the factory : (1) Finely 
ground; (2) In shaly leaves (shale- white), as it is got by 
hammering the leaden sheets; and (3) in quadrangular or 
conical lumps made by moulding or pressing a paste made 
by grinding the pigment with water. 

White lead is largely adulterated with inferior mineral 
whites, especially heavyspar, and sometimes with chalk, 
gypsum, clay and sulphate of lead. These additions show 
themselves as insoluble residues when the white lead is 
dissolved in acid. Chalk, however, may dissolve with the 
white lead, so to test for it we precipitate the lead from the 
solution by means of sulphuretted hydrogen, and test the 
filtrate, after evaporating it and driving off the sulphuretted 
hydrogen, for lime. 

Naples yellow, a yellow pigment for artists : not known to 
be adulterated. 


Red lead, Paris red or lead red, is a scarlet red for oil 
painting, and is often adulterated with brickdust, red ochre, 
red oxide of iron, heavyspar, gypsum, sulphate of lead, clay, 
and sand. Unadulterated red lead will dissolve on heating 
in a solution of sugar containing nitric acid, with evolution 
of carbonic acid, but the above-named adulterants remain 

Cadmium Colours. 

Cadmium yellow is a yellow pigment for artists and 
printers. It dissolves in concentrated hydrochloric acid, 
which leaves adulterations imdissolved. It is not affected 
by sulphuretted hydrogen or ammonium sulphide, but chrome 
yellow is destroyed by them. 

Chromium Colours. 

Chrome green, Guignet's green, permanent green, chrome 
hydroxide, Victoria green, oil green, chrome colours in a 
pm'e state, are only used by printers. By mixing them with 
other pigments a whole series of greens is produced. If we 
mix pure chrome green with a white, such as gypsum, heavy- 
spar, or clay, to make the shade lighter, we get shades verging 
into greyish blue, and which by the addition of a little pure 
yellow, such as chrome yellow, or chromate of zinc or barium, 
become very warm. These greens can only be regarded as 
adulterated with the whites when they are described as 
chemically pure. Purity is tested by fusing the pigment 
with soda and saltpetre in a platinum crucible, when the 
chromium passes into a soluble alkaline chromate, while the 
sulphuric acid and the heavyspar forms sulphate of soda, 
and the barium remains insoluble as chromate or carbonate. 
The insoluble residue after washing on the filter, can be 
tested for barium by dissolving it in cold dilute hydrochloric 
acid, and adding solution of calcium sulphate. The formation 


then of a white precipitate or turbidity shows the presenof 
of barium. The blowpipe flame of barium is green. Chrome 
yellow, chrome orange, chrome red, yellow pigments of from 
the palest lemon yellow to the deepest cinnabar red ; the 
colouring substance of the yellows is neutral lead chromate, 
that of the oranges and reds basic lead chromate. They 
answer for house painters, artists and printers. Of real 
adulteration with sulphate or carbonate of lead, lead spar or 
gypsum, it can only be a question when they are added with- 
out being allowed for in the price, for chemically pure lead 
chromates are useless as pigments. Unless mixed with other 
materials they always change colour and spoil. These other 
materials may be added to the extent of 60 per cent, or even 
more. Barium yellow has almost gone out of use 

Zinc yellow, yellow ultramarine is chiefly used by printers. 
It is distinguished from chrome yellow by not being precipi- 
tated black from solution in hydrochloric acid. For house 
painters and artists. 

Iron Colours. 

Paris blue, Berlin blue, TurnbulFs blue, for house painters, 
artists and printers. The best pigments are the pure steel- 
blues (Milori blue, steel blue, bleu d'acier) and those which 
show a coppery lustre. Pure Paris blue is mixed with starch, 
heavyspar, kaoHn, or gypsum, partly to cheapen it and partly 
to get lighter shades. Much more of the lighter adulterants 
can be added than of heavyspar, and the value of the pigment 
depends simply upon how much Paris blue it contains. The 
testing to ascertain the same is rather troublesome. Tumbull's 
blue is distinguished from Paris blue by being made by pre- 
cipitating a ferrous instead of a ferric salt. 

The iron colours include the numerous pigments found 
ready made in nature which have oxides of iron as their main 
essential constituent, such as ochres, bole, Siena earth, Poz- 
zuoH earth, etc. As these pigments occur ready-made in 


nature, so that nothing can be said about any admixture of 
particular foreign bodies, chemical investigation, pure and 
simple, gives no idea of their value. 

The testing of them depends, therefore, mainly on seeing 
that they are finely ground and free from coarse particles, 
especially of sand, which show imperfect levigation. The 
colour is of the greatest importance and the warmer and 
more beautiful it is the more valuable the pigment. The 
various shades are partly provided by nature, but are in many 
cases got by the use of artificial heat. Of late, aniline dyes 
have been used to enhance the fire of ochres and various 
other red mineral colours. Ochres so treated, however, 
gradually turn pale when exposed to Ught, and nothing is 
left in time but the original colour of the ochre. Such 
falsification is readily recognised by dissolving out the dye 
with alcohol or water, in one of which the dye will dissolve, 
and then filtering the solution from the insoluble earth. 

Cobalt Colours. 

Smalts, Thenard's blue, coeruleum, Rinmann's green. 
Smalts is a blue cobalt glass, but is not now much used, and 
Cobalt or Thenard's blue has been almost completely super- 
seded by ultramarine. It is still used, however, in porcelain- 
painting and by artists in oils, Binmann's green is not even 
manufactured now. 

Copper Colours. 

Mountain blue, mountain green, Brunswick green, Bremen 
blue, Scheele's green, Schweinfurt green. 

Mountain blue and green occur in nature and are also 
made artificially. They are constantly adulterated with 
heavyspar or gypsum. 

Brunswick green, used as an oil pigment, is adulterated in 
the same way. 


Soheele's or mineral green contains arsenic. The most 
important copper-pigment is: — 

Schweinfnrt green, a compound of copper arsenite with 
copper acetate. The darker shades are more crystalline 
than the paler ones, and for this reason have less body. To 
detect admixtures of gypsum or heavyspar a weighed quantity 
of the pigment is treated with hydrochloric acid, the excess 
of acid is removed by evaporation on the water bath. The 
whole mass is then mixed with twice its volume of strong 
spirit. After twelve hours' standing the sediment is filtered 
off, washed on the filter with a mixture of 2 vols, of alcohol 
and 1 vol. of water, dried, ignited and weighed. The spirit 
may be omitted throughout if gypsum is not present. 

Manganese Colours. 

Browns, such as umber, chestnut brown, roe- brown, etc., 
which are not made artificially, but are dug from mines. 
They owe their colour to compounds of iron and manganese 
and are the less valuable the more earthy impurities, such as 
clay, are mixed with them. By roasting at particular tem- 
peratures, levigating and grinding, the natural products, 
which chiefly occur in beds of iron ore, are made of very 
beautiful brown hues of good body. The pigments must be 
judged by their colour and body, and tested for artificial dyes 
with alcohol or water as described under the head of iron 

Mercury Colours. 

Cinnabar is the only pigment made for all purposes. It is 
adulterated with brickdust, oxide of iron, red lead, chrome red, 
cinnabar imitation, and red coal-tar dyes. The first four re- 
main behinJ when cinnabar is volatilised by heat. Cinnabar 
imitation is red lead or chrome red plus eosine. Lead and 
chrome remain behind in the residue after heating and eosine 
is extracted, before heating, with alcohol. 


Zinc Colours. 

Zinc white, zinc grey, lithopone. 

In testing zinc white we usually confine ourselves to test- 
ing the solubility in acid and alkali. The usual adulterant is 
heavy spar, which remains undissolved in either case. 

Zinc grey is zinc oxide mixed either with the metal or 
with finely powdered charcoal, or is ground blende (zinc 
sulphide). Its value depends on its colour and body. 
Lithopone is a mixture of zinc sulphide, zi»c oxide and 
heavyspar. It may be adulterated with chalk to make it 
give a larger proportion of matters soluble in acids, the 
chalk being then taken for zinc oxide. We should never 
omit to heat a solution obtained from the lithopone by 
strong nitric acid with ammonia in excess. This ammonia 
should give no precipitate, showing the absence of iron and 
alumina. When satisfied on this point, we make the solution 
acid again, but with acetic acid, and precipitate the zinc 
with sulphuretted hydrogen. The filtrate is tested with 
oxalate of ammonia for lime, and with sodium phosphate for 


The colouring matter of cochineal is subjected to many 
adulterations, on account of its high price. Among them are 
starch, clay and brickdust. As pure carmine is completely 
soluble in ammonia, which dissolves none of these things, 
falsification is readily detected by the use of that reagent. 

Carmine lake, Munich lake, cochineal lake, Florentine 
lake, etc. , are made by precipitating a decoction of cochineal 
with alum and alkali. Mineral adulterations are found by 
burning and examining the ash. 

Lake Colours. 

Under this title we understand colours obtained by pre- 
cipitating organic dyes on minerals such as heavyspar, clay. 


gypsum, etc. There is an enormous number of such pig- 
ments : madder lake, garancine lake, carmoisine lake, Vienna 
lake, ball lake, Venetian lake, cochineal red, purple lake, 
gamboge lake, blue lake, green lake, etc., etc. They are 
beautified by the addition of aniline dyes, and also with large 
quantities of mineral matter or starch.- 


Is adulterated with mineral matter, starch, gums, glue, 
sugar, dye-extracts, Prussian blue. It is very little used in 

Frankfort Black. 

This is made by charring grape-stalks and other vegetable 
matter. Its value depends on its colour. The less brown 
there is about it the better. Good vegetable black must, 
when burnt, leave hardly any ash. It is largely adulterated 
with wood-charcoal, which cannot be detected chemically. 
Adulteration with ordinary coal has also been noticed. 

Bone black and ivory black are black pigments of various 
fineness and depth, according to the raw material. They are 
got by heating bones with exclusion of air. They are hardly 
likely to be adulterated with mineral substances and such 
could be easily detected by burning and testing the ash. 



The chief pigment for printing ink is now, as it always has 
been, lampblack, obtained by burning organic substances 
rich in carbon. It is the most suitable body for the purpose, 
on account of its fine black colour, its small weight, and 
many other advantages. Many attempts have been made to 
oust it from its position, but no satisfactory substitute has so 
far been discovered. 

Printers' ink consists of boiled oil and pigment only. It is 
not sufficient for the manufacturer to take pains in the making 
of the vehicle, and in the amalgamation of it with the pigment ; 
he must see to it that his pigment is satisfactory, and to 
escape trouble and to be able to meet competition it is essen- 
tial that he should not purchase lampblack, but make his 
own. It is true that the various makers offer very fine and 
praiseworthy products, but you can never be sure of getting 
the same quality twice. The printing-ink maker, in order to 
be able without fail to make the same ink at different times 
with the same vehicle, should be able to make a pigment of 
the same quality in every batch. If, for example, a lot of 
lampblack is lighter and flakier than the last, it will make a 
thicker ink for the same quantities. If the change is of the 
reverse kind, the ink will turn out thinner, and in both cases 
the customer is dissatisfied. As a matter of fact the cardinal 
principle that a printing-ink maker should manufactm'e his 
own lampblack, and make himself independent of the market 
article, is now recognised in all large printing-ink factories. 


For the manufacture of lampblack a very varied selection 
of raw materials is employed, such as American resin, 
ozokerite, and the hydrocarbons got as bye-products in the 
refining of petroleum and the distillation of brown coal. 
Besides these fish oils and vegetable oils in a fresh or rancid 
state, light and heavy tar oils, wood-tar oils, supply raw 
materials very suitable for lampblack manufacture, being 
readily combustible and rich in carbon. With regard to the 
vegetable oils it should here be mentioned that it is advan- 
tageous to use them when they are very rancid, as they then 
give a greater yield of the black pigment. The reason of this 
is that a rancid oil requires a freer air supply to burn without 
smoke than the same oil in a fresh condition. This circum- 
stance also shows that a part of the carbon of the rancid oil 
requires a higher temperature for its combustion than is the 
case with a fresh oil. Hence the use of rancid oil in lamp- 
black making has a double advantage. It not only gives a 
larger yield, but is cheaper than fresh oil. There is only one 
disadvantage attending the use of rancid oil, and it is not one 
of great importance. It is that the oil, on account of the 
large quantity of free fatty acid which it contains, rapidly 
corrodes the metallic parts of the lamps in which it is burnt, 
especially in the case of copper or brass. Hence it is best to 
avoid copper and brass as much as possible in making the 
lamps, and to make as much of them as possible, especially 
the oil reservoir, of tinned iron. 

Of the tar oils got by distilling ordinary and brown coal, 
we have the heavy and the light, which differ not merely in 
specific gravity, but in boiling point, which with these oils 
varies within rather wide Hmits. They show great differences 
between the amounts of oxygen which they require for com- 
plete combustion, i.e., for burning with a luminous and 
non-smoky flame. The more oxygen an oil needs to burn 
smokelessly, the better it is for lampblack making, as it is 
easier by restricting the air-supply to make them burn smokily. 


Such oila may generally be recognised by possessing' both 
high specific gravity and high boiling point. 

The whole installation of a lampblack factory consists of 
two main portions, the room in which the combustion takes 
place, and in the arrangements for collecting the lampblack. 
In the newer processes of manufacture, of which we shall 
presently treat, the usual chambers for collecting the product 
are dispensed with. 

It is advisable, as conducing both to uniformity of the 
product and to safety from fire, to make the receptacles for 
the lampblack entirely of brickwork, which should be well 
pointed to prevent too much lampblack lodging in crevices. 
The end of the lampblack channel should communicate with 
a high chimney provided with a well-fitting damper, so that 
the draught may be regulated at pleasure, or cut off altogether. 
Such a plant, although somewhat expensive, has a large 
number of important advantages. It is all of fireproof con- 
struction, and if it gets warm slowly, once warm it keeps its 
heat a very long time, because bricks are bad conductors of 
heat. Once the channel is hot, water ceases to condense in 
it, and all steam passes through it with the products of com- 
bustion to the chimney. Another advantage is that the 
lampblack channels do not often have to be entered. They 
can be cleared at wide intervals, and hence the combustion 
has only seldom to be interrupted. The lampblack collects 
on the walls of the passages in flakes which finally fall to the 
floor. There should be only one opening for emptying the 
the passages, and this must be provided with an iron door, 
which should be luted up except when the combustion is 
stopped, and the passages are being emptied. Unless this 
door can be closed air-tight it is futile to think of regulating 
the supply of air to the lamps by means of the chimney- 
damper. When it is necessary to clear out the lampblack, 
a workman goes into the passages with an iron pail and a 
soft brush, and gathers the lampblack off the walls and floor. 



It is of the greatest importance that he should put nothing 
into his pail but lampblack. Hence his brush must be too 
soft to disturb the mortar of the brickwork, and he must wear 
felt slippers while at work, as nails or even leather soles to 
boots are apt to scrape foreign matter off the floors of the 
passages. The least bit of sand or hard stuff in the lamp- 
black will do much harm in the subsequent processes. 

The lamps for burning the raw material are of the most 
varied construction, and the same lamp will not do for every 
kind of combustible. Lampblack is usually divided into two 
kinds, flame-black and lampblack proper. For the first no 
lamps are used, and we shall describe its manufacture first. 

Thenius's Oven. 

Here the raw material is the last oil got in distilling coal- 
tar, and freed as far as possible from naphthalene. This is 
burnt in a special stove, represented in fig. 19. The com- 

FiQ. 19. 

partment a contains an iron plate kept always red hot. On 
to it the oil drops from the tube c. The smoke resulting 
passes in succession through chambers 1, 2, 3 and 4, through 
the small openings /. 

When enough pigment has been made, the oven is left for 
a few days, and the chambers are then entered by the 


windows d. No. 4 contains the finest product, and that in 
No. 3 is very good. That in Nos. 1 and 2 is second quahty 
only. Four hundred kilos, of the oil yield about 70 kilos, of 
black, about half being got from chambers 3 and 4. The 
iron plate is then cleaned, and the process is started again. 
The coke knocked off the iron plate is used for fuel. 

Oven for Burning Asphalt. 

The oven can be built of masonry or brickwork, but the 
inner room C must be lined with thick plates of iron. The 
doors d are also of strong iron plates and also the door a. 

Fig. 20. 

which has a few holes in it to admit the air required for 
combustion, but which can be closed at pleasure. The 
chimney C has at ^ a communication with the lampblack 
chambers, which are arranged as in Thenius's apparatus. 
In the oven asphalt or pitch is burnt with as little air as 
possible. The asphalt is fed in through the doors a a, and 
the lampblack passes into the chambers through the chimney 
and there it sorts itself according to its fineness. When the 
lampblack is to be removed, operations are suspended for a 
few days before the doors are opened. Five hundred kilos. 

Pigments foU peinters' black inks. 87 

of smiths' pitch give about 200 kilos, of total lampblack. 
The coky residue has to be broken up with hammer and 
chisel. It amounts to about 200 kilos, and is used for fuel. 
This oven will burn for the manufacture of black the 
various dry residues of the purification of raw oils and creosote. 
These residues may contain potash or soda but they are rich 
in oil and resin. They are used, however, not alone but 
mixed with the asphalt, as they do not bum well separately, 
although they give as good a black under the above conditions. 
When the chambers have been cleared out a wood fire is 
lighted in the oven to burn the black alkali-containing residues 
to a grey ash, which can be sold as a manure, when powdered 
after they have got cold. 

Oven for Eesin, etc. 

Another oven for burning resin, pitch, ceresine, etc., is 
shown in fig. 21. The iron dish G stands in contact with 
the water in another G^. This water must be replaced as it 
evaporates, as it has the important fimction of keeping the 
fused material in G from getting too hot. If that happened, 
a dry distillation would take place, the products of which 
would accompany the smoke, and spoil the lampblack, per- 
haps even reduce the product of the chambers to a smeary 
paste, which would have to be burnt all over again. The 
pipe B leads to the chambers, and the smoke and combustion 
gases enter it by the opening O. O is really along sHt only 
a few cm. wide, but reaching nearly the full width of the 
combustion chamber. The lid D is only removed to renew 
the supply of combustible. The supply of air is regulated by 
altering the position of a damper inserted into D. This, how- 
ever, has to be assisted, for the necessary control over the air 
supply, by a damper in the chimney. In order that the 
progress of the combustion may be observed a glass window 
is provided. At the commencement of an operation the 


damper in D is fully opened, and the chimney damper 
is regulated so as to produce a strong draught. As soon, 
however, as thick black smoke begins to come out of the 
chimney, we have a sign that the passages are full of the 
combustion gases, and that they are being regularly drawn 
through the flues. We then diminish the strength of the 
draught with the dampers until the chimney only shows a 

Fig. 21. 

just perceptible smoke, and the flame in the combustion 
chamber becomes a dirty red instead of white. 

Oils too can be burnt in this stove if a proper hearth is 
provided for them. These hearths are so constructed that 
while the surface is burning more oil is entering from below. 
As is the case with pitch or resin, it is indispensable that the 
hearth should be kept cold by a constant supply of water 
below it, or it would soon become so hot as to evaporate a 
lot of the oil, which would then escape combustion, and also 
make the flame very difficult to regulate. 


Eeal Lampblack. 

For burning liquid fats, such as train oil and vegetable and 
mineral oils, lamps are used. The construction of these is 
directed to the point that they shall burn no more carbon 
than is absolutely necessary to keep up the combustion. 
At the same time the temperature of the flame must be kept 
as low as possible to prevent it from burning any of its own. 
smoke. The lamps have fish-tail burners and must be 
enclosed in an iron case provided with a damper, which must 
be very accurately fitted, or else air will get in through the 
crevices, and the use of the damper will become illusory. 
To prevent the fuel of the lamp from getting too hot, which 
would entail great loss by evaporation, especially in the case 
of mineral oils, the reservoir of it must be outside the metal 
case of the lamp. 

The burner B is represented in fig. 22 in its cyhndrical 
case, which is bent above, but must be gradually curved and 
not in a sharp knee. This bend directs the products of 
combustion into a chamber K, from which the passages for 
the deposition of the pigment proceed. The form of the 
upper part of the lamp-case is important. If it has an 
angular bend, the angle catches a lot of lampblack. This 
forms lumps which fall off, and partly get burnt in the flame 
and partly accumulate at the bottom of the lamp-case. A 
proper bend stops no lampblack, all of which goes to its 
appointed place. 

The damper S is fitted into the lower part of the lamp-case, 
and must rotate easily. The wider the slots are left open by 
it, the more oxygen gets to the flame, and the faster the 
combustion proceeds. At one part of the lamp-case a w^ell- 
fitting little door is made, to allow access to the wick, and 
there is also a window to permit the flame to be observed 
without opening the case. The screw R raises or lowers the 
wick. O is the reservoir for the lamp fuel, outside the case. 



In the older types of lamp, the wick sucks up the fuel, and 
the attendant had always to take care to keep a supply of it 
in the reservoir. If this is neglected, the wick bums. This 
makes it suck up too much fuel, more than the lamp can 
burn. Most of the excess is simply distilled, and gives the 
lampblack the greasy smeary character above alluded to as 
making it unfit for further treatment. A careless and in- 
attentive person can easily make this mistake, if he has a 

large number of lamps to look after. But from the reservoir 
shown in the figure the fuel does not flow out until its 
surface is below the line N. As soon as a little has been 
burnt, a little air enters the reservoir, which consequently 
supplies the lamp by gravitation until the opening N is again 
closed by the liquid. This make of lamp, however, only 
answers well with thin oils, and the greatest attention has 
to be paid to keeping the lamps clean. 


All makes of lamp have disadvantages more or less. They 
have to be constantly cleaned, and there is always a waste 
of fuel when they are filled. There is a remedy for this, 
however, which consists in substituting for the separate fuel 
reservoir for each lamp one in common to a great number, 
and fitted to supply the lamps automatically. The attendant 
has then nothing to do but to supervise the air supply to 
each lamp, and to see that the mechanical arrangements for 
feeding the lamps with fuel are kept in good order. 

With this automatic feed, all the burners must be in the 
same horizontal line, and must be immovably fixed. From 
each lamp a tube goes to a common tube running below 
the lamps. This latter opens into the free reservoir, and 
this is supplied from another larger one at a somewhat 
higher level. A cock in the tube between the two re- 
servoirs is opened by a float in the lower one. If the 
level of the liquid in the latter sinks below a certain level 
the float opens the cock, so that the lower is kept supplied 
from the upper one up to a constant level. The float is 
so arranged, too, that the level of the liquid in the lower 
reservoir is just a little above that in the lamps. Thus 
there is just enough hydrostatic pressure to feed the lamps, 
and there is no difficulty ia regulating the supply to the 
amount burnt. It is not easy to do so at first with a fuel 
of which one has had no experience, so as to burn all and 
waste none. To prevent any waste, the circular damper 
is made with a shallow concave bottom ending in a tube 
which opens above a small vessel, into which the funnel- 
shaped bottom of the damper directs any drippings. 

In fig. 23, S is the damper and T the vessel to catch 
the waste. L is the tube bringing the fuel from the lower 
reservoir to the lamp by means of the common pipe H. A 
is the lower reservoir itself. When we use tar oils for 
lampblack making, and especially if we use thin light 
mineral oils, the tubes bringing the combustible to the 



lamps may be small, but in burning thick liqtiids, such 
as fish oils, wider tubes must be used, as narrow ones 
would offer too great a resistance to the passage of the 

It is well known that fats increase in fluidity with rise 
of temperature. Hence the stock reservoir should be in 
the same room with the lamps, so that in winter the liquid 

in it will be prevented by the heat from becoming too thick, 
and flowing too sluggishly through the pipes. 

The reverse is, however, the case in using hydrocarbons 
from tar, brown coal, etc. In view of the low boiling 
points of these highly inflammable liquids special care is 
necessary in burning them. As they are always very fluid, 
even at low temperatures, it is advisable as a precaution 
against fire to keep the reservoir outside the lamp room, 
and to provide it with an air-tight cover pierced with only 



a small hole to permit the. necessary access of air ft* 
drawing off the liquid. Special care is necessary with such 
combustible and volatile bodies in regulating the supply to 
the lamps, or a large amount will be wasted by evapora- 
tion without being burnt. 

The lampblack from the lamp is led into similar chambers 
to those already described, and removed from them as above 

Apparatus for Making Lampblack from Oil. 

The patent apparatus (D.E.P. 9,426) represented in figs. 
24 and 25 consists of a tube A closed at its lower end 

Fig. 24. 

a, and supported by its point in the bearing B. This pipe 
is provided at b with a funnel c, which is used for pour- 


ing in cooling water, which leaves the tube again through 
the holes dd. These holes are directly below a circular 
plate C of thin cast or wrought iron and is perpendicular 
to A which passes tightly through its centre. The plate 
is enclosed in the circular case, DD, of iron. From the 
top of this case the pipe e takes the cooling water into 
the circular gutter B, which is drained by the pipe I. A 
is supported above by passing through the bearing FF, 
and is rotated by the gearing GG. Near the bearing B 
is fixed a scraper H, the edge of which carries a strip of 

Fig. 26. 

leather. Opposite the scraper is the lamp J with a wide 
flat wick. 

The manufacture takes the following course : the appar- 
atus having been set in slow rotation and cooling water 
having been set to flow gradually through the funnel e and 
out at ddy so as to keep the plate CO cold, the lamp 
J, previously filled with paraffin got by the distillation of 
brown coal, is lit at such a distance below the plate CO as is 
necessary to get, by the cooling effect of the plate on the 
flame, as much as possible of the carbon of the paraffin 
deposited on the plate in the form of lampblack. This lies 
light on the cold plate and also damp, because the coldness 
of the plate condenses the steam produced by the combustion. 



The rotation of the plate is constantly offering a clean 
surface to the flame as the lampblack is perpetually being 
removed by the horizontal edge of the strip of leather on H, 
and sent by the gutter K into its destined receptacle. 

Another apparatus on the same principle is shown in fig. 

The cylinder is a thin walled one of cast iron, with its 
exterior turned quite smooth. It is surrounded at a distance 
of a few cm. by an iron case. It turns in bearings on a 

Fig. 26. 

hollow axle, so that water can flow by gravitation through 
the inside of the cylinder. Below the cylinder are fixed the 
smoky lamps, in a row, and a soft brush extends over the 
whole length of the cylinder. This brushes off the lampblack 
over a sloping plate of iron into the receiver. The cylinder 
is kept in slow rotation by any suitable means. 

The action of this apparatus is as follows. The lamps are 
so constructed as to produce a smoky flame and the lamp- 
black they deposit on the outside of the cylinder is collected 



from it by the brush. All the time the cylinder is kept cool 
by the water passing through it. The collected lampblack 
shows in consequence of this rapid coohng, which condenses 
other products, viz., those of destructive distillation, a rather 
strong brown colour, and has to be made fit for use by 
subsequent ignition. 

Dreyer's Apparatus. 

The apparatus of R. Dreyer of Halle also depends on the 
fact that if a cold surface is brought into a luminous flame 
it becomes coated with a deposit of soot, as the temperature 

Fig. 27. 

is brought below that necessary for the combustion of the 
carbon in the fuel, and is left behind in a finely divided free 
state. Fig. 27 is an elevation of the lower part of the 
apparatus ; fig. 28 a longitudinal section ; fig. 29 an end 
view, and fig. 30 a transverse section. Fig. 31 is a section 



of 1ihe counterpoise ij/ of the cylinder B and of the manhole 
TT. Fig. 32 is a bird's-eye view of the bed plate of one 
side of the framing. Fig. 33 is an elevation of the upper 
part of the apparatus, and fig. 34 an end view of the same. 
Fig. 35 is a longitudinal section of the upper part, and fig. 

Fig. 28. 

36 a transverse section of it. Fig. 37 is a bird's-eye view of 
it; fig. 38 a transverse section through the lampblack col- 
lectors a, and fig. 39 shows the cam n, and the hfting rod o. 
The principal parts are the frame A A, the cylinder B, the 
casing 0, the lamp-guard D, the scraper B, the collecting 
funnels F, the gearing H and the aspirator K. 

The frame consists of two side walls AA of cast iron 




closely united by the screws a. The framing is bolted down 
to a suitable masonry foundation. 

By means of the bearings b and bj^ the frame bears the 
cylinder B, with its outside turned smooth, and with hollow 
trunnions. The trunnion at b^ has a hollow piece cast on to 
it to take the worm-wheel c, by which the motion of the 

Fia. 29. 

driving shaft e and the worm d the motive power is trans- 
mitted to the cyhnder. The driving axle moves in the 
bearings / in the side- walls of the framing. To lessen cog 
frictic a lubricator g is placed so that the worm touches the 
oil in it. Both the trunnion at b and the production of it at 
b^ are provided with stuffing boxes, to receive water-tight the 



tubes /i and h^ respectively ; h^ brings cold water in the direc- 
tion of the arrow for cooling the interior of the cylinder, 
while the other carries off the warm water as it is replaced by 
fresh. So that the temperature of the outflow may be ascer- 

FiG. 30. 

tained for the purpose of regulating the supply of cold water, 
and knee-tube i is inserted in the outflow tube, and in it is 
the thermometer E fitted into it by means of a cork. Under 
the cylinder B is the series of lamps D. The combustion 



arrangement consists of the lamps I, the tube m distributing 
fuel to them, the indiarubber tube n and the mechanism 
attached to the side walls of the framing for regulating the 
distance between the lamps and the cylinder. This mechanism 
consists of upright screw threads at either end of the lamp 
series; The lamps and supply tubes are supported on nuts 
on these screws, so that their distance below the cylinder can 
be regulated by turning the nuts. The closed ends of the 
supply tubes have forks g at their closed ends by means of 
which they keep their position between the plates r. If more 
than one row of lamps is used the additional rows are sup- 

FiG. 31. 

ported in their place by special screws ^, as shown in fig. 29 in 
dotted lines. The various distribution tubes are then brought 
into communication by the cross- tubes u. These are of india- 
rubber to permit arranging the lamps under the cylinder, so 
as to save room and get a better distribution of the lampblack 
on the cylinder. In a channel under the apparatus is the 
main tube J which brings the combustible to the lamps. The 
supply can be regulated by the cock v, and J is in flexible 
communication with the separate supply tubes by means of 
the india-rubber tube n. At a distance from the cyhnder B 
of a few cm. is the iron casing C, which rests by means of 
the handles w on the side walls of the frame. The lower 
part of this casing consists of two lids x and x. One of these 

PIGMENTS FOR PRINTEll'^'oBIiicK- IhSs?-: : /-lOl 

is to facilitate access to the lamps, the other to the stripper 
E. The stripper B consists of the axle y, which is kept fixed 
by screws and nuts to projections in the side walls of ' the 
framing ; the three knee levers a with counterpoises B, the 
guides yy, with the elastic steel plate d between them which 
scrapes the lampblack from the cylinder. The nearer the 
lamps can be got to this steel plate the better, as the lamp- 
black is delivered in a drier state. The steel plate is fixed to 
the rails yy by screws which work in slots so as to permit 
the edge of the scraper to be brought nearer to the cylinder 
as it wears. To fill up the slits in the end of the casing 
where the trunnions of the cylinder pass, various pieces y are 
inserted, which are kept in place by grooves and bolts. On 

Fig. 32. 

the casing C two projections are made which support the 
aspirator K with the draw-off pipes. A manhole tt with a 
cover is provided to enable the inside of the cylinder to be 
cleaned. The manhole cover is balanced by the counter- 
weight j/r. The funnels for collecting the lan^pblack are at 
one side of the casing, and are carried by the angle iron i/r, 
which is fixed to the side walls of the framing. In order that 
the collecting vessels G can be changed for emptying pur- 
poses without allowing any lampblack to fall on the ground, 
a door with a handle is attached to each funnel and can be 
secured to a bolt^ 

10^\: ^':.biti «c(iEio¥it6-'A'ND printers' inks. 

The upper part of the apparatus shown in figs. 33 t»o 39 
inclusive consists of the aspimtor K, and dra%v-off pipes 

Fig. 33. 

communicating with an exhaustor. The object of this arrange- 
ment is to prevent the so-called sweating of the workroom, 



and to ventilate it for the better health of the operatives, as 
well as to catch any lampblack which does not settle on the 

Fig. 34. 

cylinder, and save waste thereby, and at the same time to 
prevent the deposition of such lampblack in wrong places. 
With the intentionally imperfect combustion of the fuel not 



only lampblack but water is produced, which becomes steam 
through the heat of the cylinder. This steam mixed with air 
out of the factory, and kept in by the casing, is drawn by the 
exhaustor through the aspirator K, where it is freed from any 
particles of lampblack, and sent out as warm damp air into 

Fig. 35. 

the outer world. To this aspirator belongs the wooden box 
aa. This is divided by a partition and lined with tin-plate 
and felt to keep the inside warm. Each of the two compart- 
ments of this box is accessible by a little door and contains a 
lampblack-catcher, consisting of a saw-shaped piece of iron 
covered with flannel. To make these flannel walls c and the 
wooden frame d are employed. The wooden frame is sup- 
ported by the edgings e. To prevent the filters from being 



choked by accumulations of lampblack, an automatic arrange- 
ment for tapping them is attached to the cover of the wooden 
box. The necessary motive power for this is brought by a 
belt F from the cylinder axle to the pulley h on the axle g. 
By means of a suitable gearing the axle k is driven from the 

Fig. 36. 

axle g, but at a much slower rate. On the axle k are the two 
discs 1 and 1'. In the circumferences of each of these is a 
gap, the two being exactly opposite each other. On the axle 
g sit opposite the pulleys m and m^ which have near them 
and on the same axle the pulleys n and n^ each with a corre- 
sponding number of cams which engage in the correspondingly 



slotted lifters o and o^ These lifters are at their lower ends 
hinged to the flannel filters, partly directly and partly through 
the intermediate levers p and p^. The upper ends of the 
lifters are guided in the slots q and q^. For the better 
regulation of the movements of the flannel filters, the parts 
of them by which they are connected with the levers which 
are not directly connected with the slotted lifters are provided 
with guide pieces tt and ttj. Over the pulleys ZZ, d, m, m^, 
are the levers r and r^ supported at one end. These levers, 
by means of rods s and s^ attached to the slotted lifters, permit 
the flannels to be raised and keep them in that position. 

Fig. 37. 

Each of the draw-off pipes t and t^ is provided at its upper 
end with a valve {u and u{). These valves are made to shut 
the draw-off pipes by means of chains, passing over the small 
rollers v and v^, the levels r and r^, and the pulleys w and w^. 
The valves are opened by the counterweights x and x^. When 
the pulley I and the cam m have arrived at the positions 
shown in fig. 36 the projection y on the lever r lies in the 
notch of the pulley Z, and closes partly by its own weight 
and partly by the help of that of the descending flannel filter, 
the valve u of the draw-off pipes, at the same time raising 
the counterweight which opens the valve. As soon as this 
has taken place, the pulley n comes into play. By the cams 
the slotted lifter of the flannel filter is lifted up and let drop 



repeatedly. At the same time the lifters strike the metal 
plates z and z-^ and so knock the lampblack off the filters. 
To make the execution of these movements exact, the 
spiral springs a^ and a^ are also added. After the flannel 
filter has again come to rest, the cam m comes into action 
once more, by raising the roller-provided projection p of the 
lever r, which in its turn raises the slotted lifter o. Hence 
the slotting of the lifter comes into such a position that the 
cam n can no longer act. The cam I has been all this time 
approaching with its notch the projection <^, so far as to keep 
the lever r, the lifter d, and the flannel filter h in their 

Fig. 38. 

nighest positions, and its outer edge comes under the pro- 
jection <^. To further ensure proper working of the cam Z, 
the cam n has a corresponding circumference. At the same 
time the counterpoise x comes into play, and opens the draw- 
off pipe t by means of the throttle valve u. 

To prevent the lampblack knocked off the filters from 
falling back on to the cylinder B, the covers y^ y^ and the 
projections d and d-^ are added. The feet under these covers 
leave so much free opening that the warm moist air from the 
casing can get into the inside of the wooden box. The use 
of two lampblack-catchers produces a permanent ventilation 
of the workroom, and at the same time an uninterrupted 
removal of the steam, for as the notches in the cams I and l^ 
are directly opposite each other, one compartment of the box 



at least is always ventilating while the way through the other 
is closed by the throttle-valve so that there is no air current 
through it. 

In order that it may be seen whether the flannel filters are 
acting properly, a vacuum gauge i/r is fitted on the cover of 
each compartment of the wooden box. By proper choice of 
the diameter of the belt pulley and the relative numbers of 
teeth in the gearing wheels, the shaking off of the lampblack 

Fig. 39. 

from the filters may be arranged to take place at any desired 
intervals. The two draw-off pipes t and ^^ are connected 
with the exhauster, and if more than one of the pieces of 
apparatus described is used the draw-off pipes of each are 
connected by elbows with a common main L which proceeds 
to the exhauster. A cock is provided for drawing off condense 
water from this main. 

Tighe's Process. 

In the preparation of lampblack according to the American 
patent of Tighe of Pittsburg, the vapour of hydrocarbons is 


exposed to a high temperature in a retort, so that no com- 
bustion, but dissociation, ensues. On cooling the products 
lampblack is deposited. It may be questioned whether this 
process will give carbon finely enough divided in view of the 
graphite-like nature of carbon deposited in glass retorts. 

Chemical Preparation of Lampblack. 

With whatever care the manufacture of lampblack may be 
carried out, we never get a perfectly black product, because 
the carbon is invariably accompanied by a greater or less 
quantity of the products of distillation, partly solid and partly 
liquid. The effect of the presence of these bodies is that the 
lampblack is more or less of a brownish shade, which becomes 
best seen when the lampblack is spread out on paper. When 
the layer is of a certain thickness it will be clear that the 
colour is not black, but an impure brown. If we analyse such 
lampblack just as it comes from the flues, we shall see that 
various chemical solvents dissolve ingredients of the lamp- 
black, sometimes in large quantities. It is, in fact, possible 
by proper chemical treatment to remove the foreign bodies 
from the carbon almost entirely, so that a substance is left 
consisting practically of pure carbon. This rightly purified 
product can be got by boiling the lampblack repeatedly in 
strong caustic soda lye until the lye remains colourless. 
When caustic soda has dissolved out all it can, but not before, 
the residue is boiled with aqua regia till that has dissolved 
all it can. When the aqica regia too remains colourless, every 
trace of acid is washed away with water, and the lampblack 
is then finally dried. 

As a result of this treatment the lampblack becomes an 
extremely soft powder of the purest black hue known, and 
consists of chemically pure carbon in the amorphous state. 
When heated on platinum foil, it burns to pure carbonic acid, 
without the production of either smoke or smell. In practice, 
the purification of the lampblack is not carried quite so far as 


to get chemically pure carbon. If this were done, the yield 
would be made too small, without sensibly improving the 
product as an article of commerce. The object of the 
manufacturer is gained as soon as his lampblack is no longer 
brown but black. 

We can use the solvent action of caustic soda lye to get rid 
of the brown bodies which are mixed with the raw product. 
For this purpose we boil the lampblack several times in iron 
vessels with the strong lye. It is, however, unnecessary to 
keep on until the lye remains colourless ; we may stop when 
it has a pale brown colour only. Even at this stage, the 
lampblack has no perceptible tinge of brown and appears as 
a velvety black and extremely soft powder, of very great 
covering power. Even although caustic lye is now fairly 
cheap, this method of purifying lampblack must be regarded 
as a rather costly one, because it requires much labour. 
Hence it is only employed in making the finest lampblack 
for special purposes. 

Calcining Lampblack. 

As already mentioned, the substances which make lamp- 
black brown are products of dry distillation and are therefore^ 
volatile. The lampblack can hence be purified from them 
by heating it without contact of air. The temperature 
required to get rid of them entirely is somewhat high and it 
is necessary to raise the pigment to a bright red heat to be 
sure of success. If the heating is too rapidly done or the 
temperature is too high, the lampblack suffers a change which 
injures its quality, as the flaky form of the pigment is lost, 
and it takes the shape of grains which require much longer 
rubbing up with boiled oil to produce a uniform mass. The 
flaky lampblack on the other hand mixes with the oil easily 
and rapidly. 

For the ignition of lampblack boxes of sheet iron are used, 
painted outside to protect the metal from the fill. This 


painting is best done with an ordinary plaster of loam and 
hair. The loam is stirred up with water to a very thin paste, 
which is painted uniformly over the outside of the iron box 
with a brush, repeating the application several times, but 
never applying another coat till the last is dry. When this 
is finished, several more coats are applied, the loam being 
this time mixed with chopped tow or cowhair. This is 
repeated until the total thickness of the coating is several 
mm. Such a coating, carefully laid on sticks very close, 
enables the boxes to be used for a very long time, while un- 
protected ones are quickly burnt through. 

Very special care must be used with the boxes. Their 
bottoms should be coated with loam, and the covers must fit 
accurately and the join must be caulked with loam while the 
box is in use. The lampblack must be rammed into the 
boxes to a solid mass. A very small hole is made in the 
cover to allow of the escape of the volatile bodies. When the 
boxes are placed in the furnace, they are gradually heated, 
applying the heat first at one end. 

The temperature is gradually raised, and extended over 
the rest of the box. Finally a bright red heat is reached at 
which the box is kept for half an hour. This treatment 
drives off the volatile matters almost entirely and gives the 
lampblack its proper black colour. As above stated the 
greatest care must be taken to protect the lampblack from 
the air while it is red hot, as it is very combustible. The 
small opening in the cover for letting out the volatile bodies 
must be the only orifice of any kind. Even a crevice in- 
visible to the naked eye will let in quite enough air as the 
box cools to produce a very noticeable loss of lampblack by 

To prevent this loss altogether the cooling of the boxes 
must be attended by special precautions. When the boxes 
are withdrawn from the fire with tongs and left to cool, air 
can get in at the small hole in the lid ; if, however, a red- 


hot coal is laid on this hole the oxygen of the air is converted 
into carbonic acid as it enters, and hence any burning of the 
lampblack is rendered impossible, as no oxygen but carbonic 
acid only comes into contact with it. As soon as all the 
boxes are taken out of the furnace, they are exposed to a 
free current of air to cool them as quickly as possible. 

As finely divided carbon burns at a temperature much 
below redness, the boxes must not be opened till their 
contents are quite cold. An attempt to empty them while 
hot might cause the whole contents to burn. 

To get lampblack of great fineness and depth of black, 
a single calcination is insufficient. The procedure must be 
repeated as often as five times, and for specially fine kinds 
even oftener. 



The unavoidably complicated nature of lampblack manu- 
facture, and the want of uniformity of the products delivered 
by manufacturers, have necessarily created attempts to find 
substitutes for lampblack. Whether these substitutes have 
justified themselves in practice has not become known, but 
I think they might at all events be used for common 
pigments, so long as their specific gravity is not too great, 
and there is no danger of their separating out from the 
mixed paint. Among these substitutes are blacks from tar, 
and tannin-black from leather-cuttings, the production of 
which will here be fully described. 

Black from Tar. 

A factory recently erected for the manufacture of black 
pigment from tar, and which sends its product mostly to 
England, has six boilers, heated by tar, which supply steam 
for an 8 h.p. engine. The boilers are arranged so as to afford 
free access to each of them. Each boiler is 4 metres long 
and '65 metre in diameter. Each is carried on brickwork by 
two bearers, and both open into a common steam chest above 
them. The tar is brought in casks by a small railway 
to the front of each boiler, where there is a container 
holding 2 caskfuls, and emptied into it. Behind each boiler 
is a chamber, in which the black smoke developed from 
the burning tar, which has been gradually cooled by pass- 
ing under the boiler, deposits the lampblack on iron plates 
disposed horizontally and vertically in various parts of the 




chamber. The lightest black is deposited in the upper 
parts of the chamber which have not to be emptied so 
often as the middle and lower parts, which are relieved of 
their contents after the combustion of each charge of tar, 
i.e., after the combustion of the two caskfuls from the 
container in front of the boiler. Three boilers are fired 

Fig. 40. 

at a time, so that steam is kept up by one trio while the 
charge of lampblack is being drawn from the other. The 
residue on the grates is fine coke. The chamber 9 are 
covered with iron plates, and rise to a height of 5 metres, 
being 1 metre above the roof, so that the upper part 
can be emptied from without by means of an iron ladder, 
while the lower divisions of the chambers are emptied from 
inside the boiler house by means of iron doors in them. 
Tho largest part of the black settles in the lower compart- 


ments as above stated. The lampblack from these is for 
the most part mixed with peat, finely ground in a pug- 
mill, and is then packed in barrels. A small part of it, 
however, is sent away without any admixture of peat. 
The 8-horse engine provides the power for driving the 
pug-mill, the peat-preparing apparatus, the mixing plant, 
as well as for a packing machine, a cask-making machine^ 
etc. The cost of installing a factory, such as above de- 
scribed, with the six boilers is from M.8,000 to M.9,000. 

Pbeparation of Tannin Black. 

The raw material for this product is waste leather of every 
kind, old leather and leather articles, and also animal waste 
containing gelatine, and tanniferous products of all sorts, 
barks, fruits, leaves and roots. These substances are dis-- 
solved with or without steam in two different operations. 

1. Five hundred kilos, of the mass is mixed with about 
1,600 litres of water in a vessel, and the whole is then heated 
by steam for a few hours without, however, being allowed 
to boil. This first decoction is then drawn off, and another 
lot of water is added with about 25 kilos, of caustic soda or 
the equivalent quantity of carbonate. The whole is then 
boiled for a few hours, and the decoction is added to the 
first one, to which have been added in the meantime about 
4 kilos, of ferrous sulphate or the equivalent amount of 
chloride, acetate, or sulphide, to precipitate the gallotannic 
acid. This should be down by the time the second decoction 
is ready. After the second decoction has been run off, 14 
kilos, more of ferrous sulphate or an equivalent amount of 
one of the above alternatives is added, with a little alum 
to complete the precipitation. After careful stirring the 
mass is left to stand for a time and then pimiped through a 
filter-press to free it from water. The black is got from the 
filter-press in solid cakes. To prevent any liability on the 
part of the black to get mouldy, about 16 litres of heavy tar 


oil are added to each of the two decoctions. The oil owes 
its preservative power to the presence in it of creosote and 
carbolic acid. 

2. We treat 500 kilos, of leather exactly as in No. 1, 
except that 15 kilos, of caustic soda (or its equivalent of 
carbonate) is used for the first decoction and 20 kilos, 
instead of 25 kilos, for the second decoction. The same 
amounts of iron salts, of water, and of tar oil are used as 
given above, and the whole process is identical with the 
exception mentioned. 

If the black is to be used for printers' ink, a little cyanide 
of potassium or logwood extract or decoction is mixed with 
the precipitate, so as to give it a blue or violet tinge. 

After leaving the filter-press, the mass is washed with 
steam to free it from adhering salts. The quantities given 
above can be altered without affecting the principle of the 

For printers' ink the black is dried till it has lost half its 
weight, and will then make with boiled oil a mixture in any 
proportion which may be desired. To make oil paints we 
proceed in similar fashion with black and drjdng oil. 

An improved process is described as follows. The leather 
cuttings are mixed with a suitable quantity of iron-salt, 
preferably the chloride, corresponding to the amount of 
tannin in the leather. On the average 500 kilos, of cuttings 
require 30 kilos, of solid chloride. The mass is then covered 
with water and boiled up with direct steam. The boiling 
lasts five or six hours, until the whole mass has become 
black. The boiling can also be done by a steam jacket or 
a naked fire. The mass is then thoroughly washed with 
hot water or steam, the acid washings are neutralised with 
powdered iron ore or scrap iron, and can then be used instead 
of part of the next lot of chloride of iron. 

The solid residue is dried and ground fine. It can be used 
for making printers' ink instead of lampblack. 



Although nearly all the pigments which the maker of oil- 
paints and printing inks uses are dehvered to him in the 
finest powder, it may happen that he has to grind a lump 
pigment or that the pigment he has bought, although it has 
been ground, has not been ground fine enough for his purpose. 
Experience has taught us that pigments when in the form of 
the finest possible powder can not only be worked up the 
most quickly and easily, but give the best products, as they 
are much more ready to mix uniformly with the vehicle. 
When rubbing up thick colours, i.e., with a small amount of 
vehicle, care must be taken that the machinery is not clogged, 
and so perhaps stopped altogether. 

Earth-colours, such as the ochres, ball when stocked damp 
or have become damp during carriage, and when dried again 
form hard lumps which must be ground before being mixed 
with any vehicle. 

The most simple apparatus for grinding such lumps is a 
pug-mill, which consists of two flat circular stones, which 
move in a metal or wooden pan with a bottom of metal or 
stone, by means of toothed gearing, and crush the lumps by 
their weight, converting them into a powder more or less 

Bonner Ball-mill. 

The ball-mill of the Bonner Bergwerks und Huttenvereins 
consists of a casing having the form of a cylinder with ends 



consisting of segments of spheres. This includes a loose ball 
of only slightly less diameter than the cylinder. The apparatus 
is represented in fig. 41. The casing is made of cast iron or 
steel, and should be in as few pieces as possible. The one in 
the figure consists of four segments B and two side walls 
C C, which are kept together by bolts c. As a result of this 
very simple construction it is possible to replace a damaged 
or worn one with great quickness and ease. 

The side walls C C are pierced by the hollow tnmnions 
C C'^, whose bearings are on the framing G G, and on which 

Fig. 41. 

the casing rotates. The axles are hollow, so that the material 
to be ground and the products of the grinding can be passed 
through them. The mill is filled through C^ and an exhauster 
sucks the ground stuff out through C^. The grinding ball is 
of iron or steel and weighs from 1,500 to 3,000 kilos, according 
to the nature of the material to be ground. As above stated 
the ball has a little side-play between the sides of the cylinder. 
This arrangement has a great advantage over the old-fashioned 
contrivance of a stone-roller running in a casing, as it never 



causes clogging, which so frequently occurs with the roller. 
Most of the grinding is done by the sideway play of the ball. 
The casing is best turned direct by putting a belt round it, as 
shown in fig. 42. It is of great advantage in increasing the 
work done by the machine to have niches a along the path of 
the ball. These get filled with partly ground stuff which is 
constantly emptied out of them by the rotation of the casing 
and thrown back on to the ball again. The niches thus serve 
to lift up the material and distribute it. The running of the 
ball in its path and its side-play make the action analogous to 
that of rollers without the complexity and unreliability of the 
roller-mill. The ball should not have too much play, as if it 
has the grinding will be slower. 


When the grinding is finished the product is removed by 
the exhauster. It is a good plan to insert between the mill 
and the exhauster a series of chambers in which the product 
will sort itself, the finest being deposited in that farthest from 
the mill, and the coarsest in that farthest from the exhauster. 

Another very excellent machine for grinding pigments is 



Glaser's Disintegrator. 
The action of this new form of mill, shown in fig. 43, 
depends upon the rotation of a disc armed with projecting 

Fig. 43. 

beaters, which knock the material against the sides of the 
casing in which the disc runs till it is broken up small enough 
to fall through a sieve out of the mill. 

This mill has great advantages over other similar systems. 



It is built much more simply and solidly, has only one driving 
belt, is easier and quicker to clean, wears out less and requires 
no special foundation. The characteristic action of this mill 
explains its extremely large output for a comparatively small 
amount of wear and consumption of energy. The new mill 
requires no sharpening, and worn parts can be cheaply and 
easily replaced. In grinding wet, sticky, or resinous material, 
it is very rare for the mill to choke, and if it does it can be 
cleared in a few minutes. It is also an excellent apparatus 
for intimately mixing bodies together. 

Fig. 44. 

The machine can be fed with pieces the size of a hazelnut 
or the fist, according to the size of the mill and the character 
of the stuff to be ground. To bring the material into small 
enough pieces to go in the mill, other apparatus has to be 
used when necessary. A preliminary breaking apparatus 
which will take pieces twice the size of a fist may be had 
attached to the mill. A hand wheel permits the regulation 
and the clearance of the disc carrying the beaters from the 
inside of the case, so that the material can be ground coarser 



or finer at will, a correspondingly sized sieve be^Jng, of course, 
also used. 

Wherever, as in colour grinding, a very finely powdered 
and absolutely uniform product is demanded, a sieve is 
essential, and various well-constructed sifters are to be had. 
In Glaser's mill the regular feeding is provided for by 
elevators which raise the material to the necessary height, and 
then carry it horizontally into the mill, such as Archimedean 

Fig. 45. 

screws, etc. In order to get the proper speed, complete 
series of belt pulleys should be provided. The mills for a 
daily output of 400, 1,500, 4,000, 8,000 and 15,000 kilos, for 
medium, heavy and hard material, and for a medium fineness 
of grinding at from 120 to 1,200 gulden Austrian currency 
require, with a speed of 4,000, 3,000, 2,000, 1,000 and 300 
revolutions, a power of i, 2, 4, 6 and 10 h.p. 

A very pretty combined mill and sifting apparatus by the 
same firm is represented in fig. 44. It consists of a mill. 



elevator, sieva, dust-chamber, a feeding hopper, gearing, etc. 
It can be put down anywhere convenient without special 
fixing, and started at once by connecting it with a belt to the 
driving power. No attention is required except to keep the 
hopper supplied, and to remove the stuff as it is ground. ' To 
remove bits of iron which are common in grist in the shape 
of nails, etc., magnetic apparatus is provided. 

The fine powder got with these various mills is not in all 

/ Fig. 46. 

cases fit for immediate use, but must be sieved for sorting it 
into various degrees of fineness. As this is impossible with 
hand sieves, partly on account of the large quantities to be 
dealt with and partly because the dust would be injurious to 
the health of the sifter, various kinds of sifting and winnowing 
machines of known construction are employed. 

Centrifugal Sifting and Winnowing Machine. 
The centrifugal sifting and winnowing machine represented 
in fig. 45, by Zemsch of Wiesbaden, is used when the sifting 


of similar substances is to be done, or some amount of ad- 
mixture in the sifting of the substance with others previously 
sifted is unimportant, as the drum inside the case is awkward 
to clean. Quick rotation is given to the sifting cylinder, in 
which beaters are moved by gearing, as soon as the rotation 
begins. The grist enters through a safety basket to catch 
stones, nails, etc., into one end of the machine. Dust cannot 
iiy about and the finest brass or silk gauze can be used for 
the sifting. 

Sieving and Mixing Machine. 

The machine shown in fig. 46 serves for simultaneous 
sifting and mixing. It is the only existing arrangement 
whereby the whole of the bolting cloth can be taken out 
quickly and easily if it is desired to substitute a different 
mesh. The brush roller, set with the best stiff bristles, 
rotates in a semi-cylindrical sieve, and can be approached 
thereto as the brushes wear. It is enclosed hermetically so 
that no dust can fly about. Any lumps in the grist are com- 
pletely destroyed by the rotating cylinder. The product of 
the machine falls into a receptacle below, while anything too 
coarse to go through the machine leaves it at one end. The 
sieves are made of strong iron or brass wire, and fixed into 
their place by soldering. They are very durable. A corru- 
gated iron half cylinder is substituted for the sieve for mixing 
powders with liquids. The arrangement of the brushes, like 
an Archimedean screw, provides a horizontal as well as a 
rotatory motion, which makes the mixing more complete and 
more rapid. 



When large quantities of pigment have to be dealt with mixing 
them by hand is a toilsome and time-wasting process, and 
must be replaced by mechanical mixers. Such contrivances 
are the more essential when the paint has to be mixed very 
stiff, i.e., with very little vehicle, or when, as in printing inks, 
the vehicle itself is tough and the pigment (like lampblack 
for example) is very light, in which case the amalgamation of 
the two is very difficult. In fact it is practically impossible 
to effect it at all by hand, except in extremely small quantities. 
For thin colours containing much vehicle the machines may 
be dispensed with, but for thick and tough mixtures they are 

Quack's Machine. 

A very simple apparatus for the purpose is the mixing and 
kneading machine of E. Quack. 

Figs. 47 and 48 show the machine in vertical section and 
in elevation respectively. In the cylinder with smooth walls 
turn two blades overlapping as shown. They turn in opposite 
directions, and work the contents of the machine into a perfect 
mixture in a very short time and with a less expenditure of 
power than any other machine. The work goes on with 
mechanical accuracy to its termination. The particles under 
treatment are driven about until the whole mass has been 
worked through. The rotating blades scrape each, other and 
also the walls of the cylinder, so that nothing can escape them. 



Fia. 47. 

Fig. 48. 

The machine is emptied by just tilting it, the blades being 
kept going on all the time to prevent anything from remain- 



ing sticking to the walls of the cylinder. When the machine 
wants cleaning it can be at once taken to pieces by loosening 
a few wedges. 

Werner and Pfleiderer's Machine. 

The kneading and mixing machine of Werner and Pfleiderer 
of Cannstatt has the most simple principle imaginable (see 
figs. 60a, 50b), and it is said to have achieved results hitherto 
impossible. The machines are made in all sorts of sizes 



from a capacity of i up to 1,400 kilos. The charge that can 
be worked up at one time depends not only on the sp. gr. of 
the substance, but to a large extent on its consistency and 
other properties. In most cases a machine of the stronger 
class is well suited by its shovel form and general construc- 
tion to do the work of a small machine on occasion, but the 

Fig. 50a. 

use the machine is to be put to, e.g.^ whether it is for oil-paint 
or for printers' ink, should be specified on ordering. 

In working the kneading knives rotate in opposite directions 
inside the case. To save time and increase the action the 
motion must be reversed from time to time. The machine 
works best when not too full for the lively and characteristic 
movements of the mass to be observed. With dry materials 
even when the blades are entirely covered these movements 
can be seen. The machine is tipped up to empty it. Some 



of the machines can be: readily taken to pieces: to bejjleiaiied, 
the trough and the blades separately, c 


Lehmann's Machine. 

M. Lehmann of Dresden Lobtau mixing machine "for 

pigments is represented in figs. 49 and 51. The machine 
represented in fig. 51 consists as will be seen of a strong iron 

Fig. 606. 

stand bearing a cylindrical trough, which can be rotated on 
its longest axis. It contains a mixing arrangement consisting 
of segment-shaped blades which, when the trough is rotated, 
produce a thorough amalgamation of the contents of the 
trough, whether dry powder, boiled oil, or mixtures of oil 
and pigment. 




The machine is made in two sizes for 200 and for 40 kilos, 
of pigment, and costs M.600 and M.400 respectively. 

All these machines mix together oil and pigment in a com- 
plete manner, but do not make the pigment any finer-grained. 
They do not give the ointment-like consistency characteristic 

Pig. 61. 

of a good oil paint, but a lumpy mass which has to be rubbed 
down with the hand or on a stone by means of a muUer. 

To get the ointment-like consistency, further treatment 
is required, which combines mixing with crushing. For 
very small quantities a stone and muller suffice, but special 
machinery called paint mills is needed for large quantities. 



These machines may be classified as follows : — 

1. Those which work by taking the material between two 
slanting corrugated surfaces, one of which is stationary while 
the other rotates. 

2. Those which take it between two flat-ribbed surfaces, 
• which both move eccentrically but in opposite directions. 

3. Those which take it through a system of from two to 
four rotating rollers of steel, bronze, stone, or porcelain. 

Tho first class is the one most used. The machines be- 
longing to it are cheap and are made in all sizes, and several 
of them are to be found in every paint factory. 

Their simple construction is shown in fig. 52. They are 
entirely of iron, except the rubbing surfaces which are of 
bell or gim metal. The mixed colour is put into the funnel 
T, the grinding disc M is pressed more or less on to the funnel 
T by means of the set screw S, according to whether the 
scraper P is to deliver a finer or a coarser colour. The 
grinding disc is provided inside with notches which run to- 
wards the conical point in the centre of it. The interior of 
the funnel is als9 grooved. As these grooves wear they 
must be filed out again, because on them depends the fine- 
ness of the colour. The machine stands on a tripod. In an 
improved form specially introduced by the Brockhaus firm 
for printing inks there is a massive stand, and the funnel is 
more than twice as deep. 

The chief drawback of this machine is that its output is 
small, as the colour stays in it long after it is finished. The 



finer the colour has to be rubbed down, the more this incon- 
venience makes itself felt, and in fact when very thick colours 
are being rubbed very fine hardly anything will come out of 
the machine. Schlager of Ybbs has improved the machine 
by taking away the stand, and putting the grinding disc and 
funnel on a common vertical axis. The funnel is also closed, 

and air pressure is exerted upon the pigment within it by 
means of a pump. This pressure drives the finished colour 
out of the machine. The pump is geared with the machine 
so that both are set in motion together, and very little power 
is required. Many tests have shown that these alterations 
have not only greatly increased the output of the machine, 
but that the machines can be made very much lighter. . 



Plate Machines. 

The plate machines belong to the second class, and give 
an excellent output. They rub extraordinarily fine and last 
for years without repairs on account of their very solid 
construction. The machine consists of a massive cast-iron 

Fig. 63. 

stand, two plates, the spindle or axle, which is closely united 
to the funnel, and has a strong spiral spring inside of iron 
wire, the funnel to receive the colour, and the set-screw 
under the lower plate. When the machine is to be started, 
we put the plates close together by means of the set screw, 
fill the funnel with paint, release the plates a little and set 
the gearing in motion. The upper plate and the funnel then 


rotate with a screw-like motion, while the lower plate rotates 
in the opposite direction. The object of the spiral is to hold 
the scraper which is placed where the edges of the two 
plates, which have not a vertical axis, meet. To clean the 
machine we remove the spindle, funnel and plates^ and the 
spiral from the inside of the spindle. 

EoLLEK Machines. 
The best makes of paint-mill are those which act by means 
of rollers made of various hard substances. They are 

Fig. 54. 

certainly rather expensive, but they make up so fully for 
that by the fineness of the colour they produce and by the 
magnitude of their output that no colour factory is complete 
without them. For artistic painting they give colours rubbed 
finer than is possible with any other system. 

Fig. 54 shows the roller machine of J. M. Lehmann for 
printing and lithographic inks, and oil paint. The various 
sizes of this machine include three very finely polished rollers 
of green porphyry, which are harder than steel, and have 


the property of clinging to the colour, whereby great fineness 
of colour and large yield are ensured. If the machine is 
rightly handled the colour cannot escape at the ends of the 
rollers. Unequal speeds are imparted to the rollers, and 
the front one has also a lateral motion. One very valuable 
character of the machine is that at the end of the work the 
porphyry rollers run off quite clean, so that they waste no 
appreciable amount even of quite small charges, which can 
therefore be taken by the larger sizes of mill. 

The paint, etc., is poured between the first and the second 
roller, and is rubbed fine by the stones, passing to the scraper, 
which delivers it into a receptacle placed below the mill. 

The enormous output of these machines may be illustrated 
by the following figures : — 

No. 1 delivers about 3,000 kilos, white lead or 200 kilos, printing ink 
» 2 .. „ 2,500 „ „ 160 „ 

» 3 „ „ 1,600 „ „ 100 „ 

» 4 „ „ 1,000 „ „ 70 „ 

per day, and other pigments in proportion. This is with the 
finest grinding. The four sizes require 2i, li, 1, and i h.p. 
respectively. Other sizes are made for hand-power, e,g,, No. 
5, which will deal with 300 kilos, of white lead daily. 

Similar machines are built by H. F. Stolberg of Offenbach 
a. M., Beyer Fr^res of Paris, and others, but Lehmann has 
the best reputation in Germany and Austria, and his machines 
are practical and well made. 

The fineness demanded of the colour naturally affects the 
output and it is unreasonable to expect a machine to deliver 
as much fine colour for art work as it will coarser colour for 
house -painting, independently of the great toughness, and 
many things, such as printers' ink. This too has an effect 
upon the output of any mill. The striking difference made 
in the output of Lehmann's machine by using it for printing 
ink instead of white lead, as given above, shows this very 



Ordinary house paint consists of pigment and vehicle. The 
latter may be according to circumstances linseed oil, bleached 
linseed oil, boiled oil, or bleached boiled oil. Both the essen- 
tial parts of the paint must have certain qualities to produce 
a good, usable, and durable paint, which may be stated as 
follows : — 

We require of the pigment : — 

1. That it should be perfectly dry. 

2. That it should be in the finest possible powder, without 
admixture of sand, and that it should feel soft to the fingers. 

3. That it should be as free from adulteration as is consist- 
ent with the price paid for it. 

4. That it should have the necessary fastness to light and 

5. That it should have sufficient body. 
^ We require from the vehicle : — 

- 1. That it should have the proper consistency, neither too 
thin nor too thick. If it errs in the second particular, the 
paint will not go on easily with the brush; if in the first, 
the colour will not stick on, and is apt on inclined or vertical 
surfaces to run down before it dries. 

2. That it should not perceptibly affect the colour of the 
paint, especially when that is to be white. 

3. That it should dry properly. 

4. That it gets hard, and has a sufficient resistance to 
weather and atmospheric influences. 

Raw and boiled linseed oil, exposed to the action of the air. 


^ter by ct^^dation and the heat o! the sun. Free linoleic acid 
becomes linoxic acid, the nndecomposed linoleine becomes 
linoxin. The coat thus formed is durable and resistant to 
outward influences, but after a long time the hnoxin itself 
ddcomppses, becomes brittle, and flakes off. 

Linseed oil itself is the best vehicle for pigments, but it 
dries top slowly, and must therefore be replaced by boiled 
linseed oil. The driers added to the oil during the boil make 
it dry not only quicker but harder, while at the same time, 
especially with lead driers, they make the coat less durable 
than if the raw oil had been used alone. 

The qualities to be demanded of a house paint may be 
divided into those which can be recognised by inspecting the 
paint, and those which can only be known by its behaviour 
after use. In the first class we have four properties : — 

1. That the paint has the proper consistency, i.e., is ready 
for the immediate use of the brushy and can be applied to the 
surface to be coated in a satisfactory manner. 
; 2. That the paint has been properly rubbed up. Every 
particle of the pigment must be wrapped up in the vehicle 
and be penetrated by it, so that the whole is Uke an ointment, 
perfectly uniform and free from perceptible grains. 

3. That the paint dries quickly and hard enough. 

4. That the paint covers well enough. It must be of 
sufficient body to conceal entirely the surface to which it is 

; In the second class we have three properties : — 

1. The paint must not injure the surface to which it is 
applied, either by its own chemical properties, or by its own 
in conjunction with those of the vehicle, whether by galvanic 
action or otherwise. Neither on the other hand must there 
be any appreciable effect exerted on the paint by the surface 
to which it is applied. 

2. The paint must adhere well to the surface painted, and 
must at the same time be elastic enough to prevent changes 


of temperature from producing cracks by alternate contraction 
and expansion. 

3. The paint must be durable, i.e., must resist the destruc- 
tive influences of the environment, whether they are mechan- 
ical or chemical, and must form a coat hard enough to permit 
of being cleaned and polished. 

To make the paint answer all these conditions, however, 
something more is necessary than depends upon the paint, 
viz. : — 

1. The vehicle must be chosen with care and with reference 
to the use the paint is to subserve. This choice is dependent 
partly on the nature of the surface to be painted and partly 
on the influences to which it is subsequently to be subjected. 

2. The materials used must be pure and suitable for the 
object of the painting. 

3. The application of the paint must be done in a careful 
and workmanlike manner. 

We can now see that before a paint can be pronounced 
good a whole list of requirements must be satisfied, and also 
that it may not be the fault of a paint that it does not answer, 
if it has been improperly used. 

Assuming that the pigment has been properly chosen, I 
proceed to the manufacture of oil-paints, i.e., to the mixing 
of the pigment with the vehicle. All pigments must be in 
a proper condition before they go to the paint-mills, because 
the machine is not intended to mix and grind at the same 
time. On a small scale we stir the pigment a little at a time 
into raw or boiled linseed oil imtil we have a perfect mixture 
in which no solid matter is distinguishable. On a large scale 
we use one of the machines already described. 

As regards the proportion between vehicle and pigment, it 
must be remarked that the paints of commerce are usually 
mixed very thick, partly because it is to the interest of the 
manufacturer to use as little vehicle as possible, because the 
vehicle is usually dearer than the pigment, and partly because 


oonsumers think that a thick paint is better than a thin one, 
and also because thick paints are better for sending to a dis- 
tance. These circumstances have to be carefully borne in 
mind. If we want thin paints, the process of mixing is very 
easy. We simply take the pigment and stir it up in as much 
vehicle as is necessary till we get a uniform product. It is, 
however, quite another matter to make a thick paint, i.e., 
pigments containing no more liquid than is necessary to make 
them into a paste, so that they can be diluted just before use. 
In making such paints we soon find that there is an excess 
of pigment over vehicle which cannot be exceeded, and which 
in any case makes the mixing more and more difficult, and 
makes it require more time and more power. Certain 
pigments, such as the ochres, require far more vehicle than 
others, but the manufacturer, on account of the greater price 
of the vehicle, uses only from two-thirds to three-quarters of 
the weight of the pigment. This being the case with the 
Ughter pigments, the heavier ones, such as lead and chrome 
colours, want evdn less vehicle. With these a weight of 
vehicle amounting to one-quarter to one-third of the weight 
of the pigment will give thick paints. 

It is often impossible for the paint manufacturer to deUver 
pure paints for the price, and he has therefore to thin with 
heavyspar. If in his dealings with the pigment manufacturer 
he buys only cheap kinds he gets the heavyspar in without 
having the trouble of getting it and mixing it in himself, al- 
though he had better do so. In these cases it is very hard to 
draw a line between adulterated and unadulterated goods, 
and a pigment can then only be regarded as the latter when it 
contains foreign ingredients out of all proportion with its price. 

When the mixing has been perfectly done, the mixture is 
put through the paint mill, where it is brought to the desired 
degree of fineness. In special cases, where extra fineness is 
needed, the paint must be put twice or even three times 
through the paint mill. 

140 OIL coLOUBS AKi) Pointers' Inks. 

I now give various recipes for partieular mixed paints, 
which would require too much space to specify more par- 

White Lead Pigments. 

Pure white lead in powder . . . . . . 23 

Bleached or ordinary linseed oil . . . . . 6 

Pure white lead in powder ... . . . 18 

Pure white heavyspar ....... 5 

Linseed oil . . . . . . . . . 6 

Pure white lead in powder . . . . . . 18 

Pure white heavyspar ....... 6 

Linseed oil ... 7 

Pure white lead in powder 13 

Pure white heavyspar 15 

Linseed oil l3 

Zinc White Figments. 


Finest zinc white . 11 ' 

Bleached or ordinary linseed oil 5 

Finest zinc white . . . . . . . . 11 

Pure white heavyspar 6 

- Linseed oil 7 

Grey Colours 

are made by mixing any of the above whites with a black 
such as graphite or lampblack, or with a blue such as ultra- 
marine or Prussian blue, or an ochre. 

Yellow Pigments. 


Ochre 33 

Heavyspar . . . ... . . . 15 

Boiled oil 18 

Ochre ] , . . , . 26 

Pure white lead . 6 

Boiled oil . . 10 



Pure white lead 
Boiled oil 

Chrome yellow 
Boiled oil 

Chrome yellow 
White lead . 
Boiled oil 

Bed lead 
Boiled oil 

Venetian red . 
Boiled oil 

Venetian red . 
Boiled oil 

Chrome orange 
Linseed oil 

Bed Pigments. 

Green Pigments. 

Chrome green 
Boiled oil 

Chrome green 
Boiled oil 

Schweinf urt green 
Zinc white 
Boiled oil 

Zino green 
Boiled oil 























Blue Pigments. 


Ultramarine blue 7 

Zinc white 10 

Boiled oil 6 

Ultramarine blue 7 

Zinc white 10 

Heavyspar 6 

Boiled oil 8 

Prussian blue 10 

Zinc white 5 

Boiled oil 8 

Brown Pigments. 


Umber 21 

Boiled oil 8 

Umber 21 

Heavyspar 10 

Boiled oil . 10 

Velvet brown 16 

Boiled oil 8 

Filling up * 20 

Boiled oil 8 

Black Pigments. 


Vegetable black 22 

Boiled oil 10 

Vegetable black 11 

Heavyspar 5 

Boiled oil 6 

Lampblack 10 

Boiled oil . 11 

* Sic in the original. — Tr. 


Hugoulin's Pbocbss. 
We prepare in a glass or earthenware vessel a thin homo- 
geneous paste with water and one of the following substances 
in fine powder in the proportions given. 

To 1,000 kilos, white zinc oxide 300-400 kilos, water 
» ., » grey „ „ 160-180 „ 
„ „ „ white lead 160-180 „ „ 

„ „ „ red lead 80-160 „ „ 

„ „ tj lampblack about 1,000 „ „ 

To this paste we add enough linseed oil to make a con- 
sistent colour by thorough stirring until the oil has taken the 
pigment from the water. The water is then decanted from 
above the mass, which is then kneaded up exactly like butter 
to get all the water out of it. Finally a greasy mass remains, 
which, when it has to be used, is diluted to painting con- 
sistency with oil. This colour is shown by the throwing out 
of the water to be a true compound (this it is not, but the pig- 
ment has more tendency to mix with oil than with water) ^ and 
has all the appearance of one. If other minerals than those 
given are used, e,g,, ochre, earth-colours, copper compounds, 
etc., no throwing out of water takes place and however long 
we stir, the mass remains a mixture of oil, water and pig- 
ment. Combination only takes place beween linseed oil and 
white or red lead, white or grey zinc oxide, or chrome yellow, 
or lampblack, whereby the preference that these pigments 
enjoy as a consequence of practical experience of their power 
of protecting wood and metal is explained. 

The process for making these house paints on any scale, 
small or large, is as follows : One of the above-mentioned pig- 
ments is worked to a paste with water and a wooden spatula. 
This paste is then thinned with more water, and run through 
a silk sieve. It is best to have the paste very thin so that 
it will flow freely through the sieve. The sieve usually 

^ This is evidently an interjection of Andes in a quotation from a 


keeps back about J per cent, of the pigment, which is kept 
for fiirther grinding, and also any impurities which may. have 
been present, and which neither the paint-mill nor the nciuller 
is competent to get rid of . - 

The filtered paste is allowed to stand in a vessel to settle, 
which may take any time from a few hours to a few days. 
The water is then run off, and the pigment is stirred up with 
oil for a few minutes. The paste balls together at the bottom 
of the vessel. The kneading is then done, and all the re- 
maining water squeezed out of the mass and poured away. 
Just before use the colour is properly thinned with oil and 
siccative. By the above-described process a single workman 
can turn out over 100 kilos, of faultless oil paint within two 

The new process is already used to a fairly large extent in 
cases where it is a question of making several hundred kilos, 
of oil paint at a time, and has always given excellent results. 
When it becomes further extended it will perhaps be found 
convenient to bring pigments on the market in the form of 
the pastes that it requires instead of in the usual dry form. 

Zinc grey must be put through the sieve dry, because it 
oxidises by long contact with water and forms a solid mass 
which will not easily combine with oil. Lampblack is not 
eWetted by water, so that in its case 10 per cent, of alcohol 
must be added to the water. The lampblack is mixed with 
this dilute spirit till it-has the dampness of fresh snuff. In 
this form it mingles readily with water. It is then treated 
<as above by decanting the water, stirring up with oil, And 
kneading out the remaining water. 

Process s-or Making Weather-Proop Paint for Walls. 

^ The process of.E. G, Thmn (P.|l,P.. 25,137) is as fpllowe : 
Mix and grind thoroughly in a mill a mass consisting of 20 
per cent, dry silicate of potash, 10 per cent, felspar, 27 per 


o§nt. artificially precipitated silicic, hydrate, 90 per cent, 
cryolite, 14 per cent, of any natural silicate readily attackable 
by caustic potash lye, e.g., pumice, and 19 per cent, of crystal- 
lised carbonate of potash. This mixture is then mixed with 
about half its weight of pure well-levigated earth-colour, or 
other pigment not affected by caustic lime or potash. The 
whole mass is thoroughly mixed and sieved through a sieve 
with 600 meshes to one square centimetre. 

The vehicle consists of thick milk of Ume which has been 
passed through a sieve of the same fineness as the dry mass, 
and is added to the dry mass in the proportions of about 2 
vols, of milk of lime to 1 of pigment. The whole mass is 
then put again through the sieve. 

The colour is applied like an ordinary Hme-wash. When 
dry, which takes about twenty-four hours, the surface is gone 
over with clean water several times to accelerate its hardening. 
This object is attained still sooner if the water is used hot. 
Eain and natural dampness of the air have, of com-se, the 
same effect. If the paint has to resist unusual severe 
mechanical influences, it is a good plan to harden with a 15 
per cent, solution of potash waterglass instead of with plain 

The hardening action consists essentially in the formation 
of silicate of Ume, formed by the interaction of the silicate of 
potash and carbonate of lime. The advantages of the appli- 
cation are its resistance to weather, cheapness, handsome 
appearance and washability. 

Universal Pigment for Use as Water, Oil or Lake 

By the process of J. Strenli & Co., of Horgen, a colour is 
obtained which can be used with oil or water, or as a lake 
colour, and may therefore be called universal. Dissolve 1 
kilo, of raw caoutchouc in small pieces, by heating it with 
about 20 kilos, of linseed oil. At the same time boil 2i kilos. 



of Panama wood ^ or flax-seeds in 100 kilos, of water for about 
half an hour. We thus get a decoction having an oily 
character in virtue of the flax seeds used, which is intended 
to facilitate saponification of the materials. Panama wood 
has the advantage that a colour rubbed up with a mixture 
containing it adheres very strongly to the painted objects, 
whether they are of wood, stone or iron. Besides its extract 
is very much like the purest soapy water whereby intimate 
union with the indiarubber solution is much facilitated. 

While this decoction is boiling, the indiarubber solution is 
diluted at a temperature of about 100° C. with more linseed 
oil, in the proportion of about five times its volume. This 
dilute indiarubber solution is then mixed with four-thirds of its 
own volume of the decoction, and well stirred up with it to 
a thin soapy liquid. The dry pigment is then diligently 
stirred up in it till a paste is produced which can be rubbed 
up in the paint mill, through which it is at once put. Only 
chemically pure pigments can be used for making this uni- 
versal colour, for if, for example, heavyspar is added, it is 
impossible to get a uniform mixture. The oil would unite 
with the pigment and the heavyspar and the water would be 
thrown out, and the result would not be a universal colour 
but an ordinary oil-colour. 

On leaving the paint-mill, the universal colour is ready, 
and can be delivered up to the painter for further manipula- 

The materials contained in the universal colour permit of 
its uniting easily with water, oil, or varnish, so that the 
painter can mix it with water and so get water colour or 
distemper, or with oil and so get an oil colour, or with varnish 
and so get a coloured varnish. As distemper, the colours are 
durable and not liable to mouldiness; as oil colours, they 
form lif surface-skin, and without the use of wax give a very 

1 Ouillaia bark. 


fine and durable coat which can be washed with soap or sdda. 
It is cheap as it does not contain wax. 

The colours got in the manner just described set harder 
than ordinary ones, resist weather, and can be used in or 
out of doors either in winter or summer. 

Grunzweig's Oil Paint. 

Grunzweig mixes a paint consisting of 10 per cent, umber, 
5 per cent, yellow ochre, 10 per cent, red lead, 5 per cent, 
ultramarine, 5 per cent, zinc white, 25 per cent, white lead, 
10 per cent, of graphite, and 25 per cent, of boiled oil. 

The surface to be painted with this must have been care- 
fully cleaned and dried, and if of iron must have been freed 
from rust. The mass can be diluted with boiled oil only. 
This heterogeneous colour has probably been patented in 
England, so that it may be called " patent ". 

To Make Oil Colours Eesist High Temperatures. 

This object is reaHsed, according to D.E.P. 17,459, by using 
a solution of shellac, camphor and boiled oil in spirit. The 
tincture is made paler by treatment with chalk. The surface 
to be painted is grounded with a mixture of this tincture with 
plaster of Paris, and then painted with pigment rubbed up 
with the tincture. 

Glasenapp's Black Paint. 

This is not exactly a black but rather a dark grey, but has 
very great body. It was invented by Glasenapp. 

100 lb. of boiled oil made with lead are heated till they 
begin to fume, and then 15 lb. of litharge or red lead are 
gradually added and digested to complete solution. We then 
add gradually 14 lb. of flowers of sulphur and stir diligently. 
Finally we add 2 lb. more of the lead oxide and continue 
the heat for thirty to sixty minutes longer, to get all the 
sulphur (which dissolves readily in the oil) into combination. 


T)i<^ final rather thick liquid is thinned with oil of turpentine^ 
This application rightly made will dry in ten hours, but if 
there is any uncombined sulphur it will take longer. The 
presence of free sulphur in the unfinished paint may be 
known by the gases given off having a characteristic and 
disagreeable smell. The sulphide of lead gradually settles, 
but the paint is easily made fit for use by stirring it up. 

Vehicle and Fixer for House Paints. 

The invention (D.E.P. 3,420) consists in mixing organic or 
inorganic colouring matters with the following paste : — 

Glue, 25 grammes; glycerine, 534 grammes; water, 208 
grammes ; ammonia, 12i grammes ; wax, 208 grammes ; and 
resin, 12i grammes. Paints made with this vehicle are suit- 
able for a variety of industrial purposes. They form an 
advantageous substitute for pastels, and are usable for both 
oil and water colour painting. They are easily applied to 
fabrics, and also to porcelain, earthenware, etc. By dint of 
these properties, and their rapid drying, they are of great 
value to landscape painters. The paste is made as follows : — 

Mix by heating together 208 grammes of pure white wax 
and about 260 of glycerine. When the wax is quite fused, 
a solution of 12i grammes of resin in ether is added. JPinally 
we add a solution of 25 grammes of fish or other glue in about 
260 grammes of glycerine. Then dilute with water and stir 
till cold. The paste is then rubbed up with the pigments 
£)..nd the paint is ready. The amount of glycerine used has 
to be regulated according to the drying power the paint is to 

Preparation op a Substitute for Linseed or Turpen- 
tine Oil. 
. This oil extract (D.R.P. 3,420) is made from colophony 
free from turpentine, crystal soda, Uquid ammonia and water, 
and is a syrupy mass which can be used witii great advantage 
in house painting. The product is made as follows : — ■. 


lOQ-lb* of the colophony, 20 of crystal soda and 50 *^ 
water are boiled together, and then mixed intimately: with 
250 of water and 24 of ammonia. 

The resulting product can be used with great success in 
the manufacture of all paints as a substitute for oil of turpen- 
tine or linseed, and the pigments simply need to be rubbed 
up with it. 

The paint so got has the property of drying quickly and 
easily without any siccative, and can readily be varnished 
over. The coats withstand changes of temperature perfectly, 
keep under water as well as dry and get very hard. Paints 
made with this substitute can be diluted at will simply with 
water, even to be very thinly flowing indeed. In comparison 
with the methods hitherto known of making house paints 
with linseed or turpentine oil, this substitute has the impor- 
tant advantage that it can be made at one- third of the cost 
of the original vehicle, and gives a still more durable ^oat. 

Bruchhold's Weatherproof Paint. 
Bruchhold's new paint consists of boiled oil which must 
be free from every artificial siccative, with a little oil of 
creosote and powdered silver slag from a silver refinery. The 
exact proportions are : — 

Per cent. 
Slag 76 

Boiled oil 24 

Creosote 1 

The essential ingredient is the slag, the great hardness 

of which gives the paint much resistance to water or acid, 

and contains no metals liable to oxidation. 


Under this name a product has been for some years on 
the market as a paint, having been ostensibly discovered 
by Otto Kail of Heidelberg. 
. KallkoUth is used with great advantage as a substitute 


for the usual priming colours on wood and iron, and instead 
of boiled oil on stone, cement and all kinds of plaster. It 
prevents all blistering and gives an exceedingly hard, smooth 
and durable surface, as it combines firmly not only with the 
surface but with the paint subsequently laid over it. It has 
the following advantages : — 

1. Cheapness. — It is half the price of ordinary priming 
and linseed oil. 

2. Yield, — It goes three times as far as ordinary priming. 

3. Convenience, — It is very easily applied and with great 
economy of pigment, which is made to cover well in the 
thinnest coats, and will have more durabiUty than on an 
ordinary oil priming. 

4. Drying powers, — The drying only takes two to three 
hours. Hence we have 

5. Contimtance of the work ensured. 

6. Oil colours on kallkolith on wood and plaster have 
greater beauty and 

7. Greater durability and specially very great 

8. Hardness y so that, as the experience of several years 
has shown, the lasting of the substance on outside fronts 
exposed to the weather is most satisfactory. Hence any 
work done with kallkolith may be fully guaranteed. 

On wood, kallkolith is applied thinly and with care. It 
dries in from one to two hours and the smoothing with 
pumice may be omitted, only brushing when dry with 
a brush before stopping. We thus get a solid, smooth 
surface with great saving of time, and one coat of good 
oil paint will be found to have all the body required. This 
single coat is sandpapered and dusted, and the finishing 
colour can now be laid on, and will remain perfectly bright. 
A dull wax paint can also be used, and one coat of it 
will be enough on a priming of kallkolith. 

Woodwork, preserved in its natural colour by kallkolith, 
acquires, when the application has been carefully made, 


a fine, antique shade, and can be waxed, varnished or 
polished over the kallkolith. 

If the objects are to be decorated, they can be painted 
on with kallkolith and beautiful work can be done in this 
way. In polishing the wood we proceed as follows: If 
the wood is to retain its natural colour, from one to three 
coats of kallkolith are applied, according as the wood has 
fine or coarse pores, and when dry sandpapered is 
polished in the usual way. If a deeper colour of the wood 
is wanted, a larger number of kallkolith coats is applied, 
and the surface is well rubbed with soft paper before 

Poker-work and intarsia can be imitated with great 
fidelity on soft as well as on hard wood. To do this, 
kallkolith is painted on the wood, diluting it for light tints and 
putting in the shadows afterwards with undiluted kallkolith. 

In imitating other woods, it is advisable to mix the graining 
colours with kallkolith and water instead of vinegar. The 
kallkolith completely prevents any creeping on to the oil 
ground, thereby saving a good deal of time, and has t o addi- 
tional advantage that when the work is varnished less varnish 
is required to give the proper lustre. 

As a priming for oil colours on iron, kallkolith is applied 
thinly and carefully. 

As a priming for oil colours on stone, cement and plaster, 
instead of boiled oil, kallkolith is used diluted with twice its 
volume of water. The surface is carefully dried, and freed 
from dust, and then the diluted kallkolith is applied fully, and 
with as little frothing as possible, with large brushes. In 
favourable weather, the application dries in from one to two 
hours, and then can be at once thinly covered with any paint. 
If the work is carefully done, as good and durable an effect 
can be produced as in any other way, and with much less 
time and labour. 

Old weather-worn oil-painted fronts can be saved from the 


need of Having the paint fully renewed if they are well cleaned 
and then painted with dilute kallkohth. Kallkolith is applied 
to cement exactly as to plaster, but the plaster should be dry, 
and the kallkolith should be applied during fine weather. 
All lime- washed fronts must be well scraped and washed, and 
should then be painted over with kallkolith diluted with seven 
times its volume of water, and then, when that is dry, treated 
as if they were fresh plaster. 

As a priming for distemper instead of soap kallkolith is 
used diluted with seven times its volume of water, and the 
distempering is done as usual when the kallkolith is dry, 
although the distemper colour should be a little thinner than 
usual. It does no harm if the priming has for any reason to 
stand uncovered for a time, which cannot be allowed with a 
priming that wants sand-papering. 

For preparing walls for decoration kallkolith is used diluted 
with seven times its volume of cold water. For this purpose 
it has the advantage that the decorative painting is more 
durable on it than on size. Kallkolith comes on the market 
as a thickish dark brownish -red liquid, which on shaking 
becomes covered with a soapy lather and has a very disagree- 
able ammoniacal smell. The colour alone seems to be rather 
a drawback to its use, and its nauseous smell, which of course 
becomes very obvious when painting is done with it, must in 
my opinion entirely prevent its use in some cases. 

I have mentioned in a former work that Dr. von Scherzer 
brought about thirty years ago from China a cement or paint 
called schio-laio, consisting of pig's blood, quicklime and 
alum, and specially used for painting boxes and other articles 
of wood to make them waterproof both within and without. 
It has long been known that all albuminous bodies make 
compounds with lime which are excellent for paint, and 
blood is no exception to the rule. The German Government 
had analyses made of schio-laio^ to determine the recipe if 
possible, and then to make some and experiment with it. 


According to the determinations of nitrogen and lime, the 
proportion between fresh blood and slaked lime was put 
at three to four, and in fact if- we mix 3 lb. of whipped or 
defibrinated blood with 4 lb. of lime, slaked to a powder, 
we get a thin tenacious mass. With more lime the mass 
is thicker, and quite as tenacious as before. 

In accordance with these researches, I have drawn up the 
following formula for a vehicle : — 

Whipped fresh blood 6 lb. 

Slaked Ume IJ lb. 

Water 1 gat 

This composition can be mixed with all manner of paints, 
except white, and acts as a vehicle for them. 

Kairs patent (D.E.P. 18,307) says : To 10 lb. of whipped 
blood from the slaughter-house add through a sieve 1 lb. 
of old quicklime which has fallen to dust, stir, and let 
the mixture stand for twenty-four hours. Then skim the 
impurities off from the surface, remove the rest from the sedi- 
ment and put it aside, and stir up the latter with water and 
allow it to settle. Then pour the water off into what has 
been put on one side, so as to dilute it. Let the mass then 
stand quiet for from ten to twelve days after mixing it with 
a solution of permanganate of potash, which partly bleaches 
it and prevents it from turning mouldy. 

At the end of this time the mass is stirred up and more 
water is added till it is of the consistency of quite thin glue. 
It is best, to secure uniformity of mixture, always to get a 
predetermined gravity by means of a hydrometer. 

This liquid is filtered, mixed with a little oil of lavender, 
and kept in well-closed casks, when it will keep for a very 
long time. 



A GOOD paint for hulls of ships, in iron or steel, to resist 
water, has not only to preserve the material in the ordinary 
way, but to prevent the growth of sea- weeds and animals 
upon it. 

This object is attained by smooth hard-clinging coats which 
contain substances poisonous to sea-growths, both vegetable 
and animal, and have also the property after they have killed 
the organisms of flaking off and leaving the hull bare. 

There are already poisonous paints known, but they will 
not flake off, and the shell fish, etc., make as much friction 
as the ship moves when dead as they did when living. On 
the other hand paints are known which slowly flake off, but 
they are not poisonous, and allow the organisms to attain 
considerable development before flaking off. 

Schnittger's Paint. 

Schnittger's process seeks to combine both properties in 
one paint, and is in this respect chiefly to be regarded as a 
novelty. The manufacture of it proceeds as follows : — 

Take 100 lb. of copal, and heat it till it has lessened to 
about 80 lb., and condense and retain the fumes, stirring 
during the heating with a suitable stirrer. When the dis- 
tillation is over the copal is removed from the still so as to 
cool as quickly as possible. It is a good plan to run it into 
cold water. When cold the copal is broken up and dissolved 
by heating it on a sandbath in 96 per cent, spirit, at as low 
a temperature as possible. The oil which came over during 


the distillation is added to the solution, but not the water 
which would cause precipitation, whereupon the whole is 
then filtered. In the meantime the following solutions in 
spirit are prepared : — 

Of 20 lb. powdered aloes in 40 lb. of 96 per cent spirit ; 
of 20 lb. Japan camphor in 40 lb. of 96 per cent, spirit; 
of 20 lb. pitch in 40 lb. of 96 per cent, spirit ; and of 50 lb. 
colophony in 30 lb. of 96 per cent, spirit. These four tinc- 
tures are then mixed into the copal solution, cleared by allow- 
ing time to settle, and then the whole is decanted from the 

To this carefully prepared solution we add, with continual 
stirring, for every 33 lb. of it 28 lb. of caput mortuum, 3 
lb. linseed oil, 3 lb. castor oil, and finally, after long stirring, 
10 lb. of red oxide of mercury ; stir for two hours more, and 
then add 5 lb. of crystallised carbolic acid. After mixing 
this in, leave to stand for twenty-four hours and pack into 

Paint fob Ships, and Submabinb Constructions. 

In the process of Bessy G. Benedict and Frank Lee Bene- 
dict of Viareggio, copper sulphate is reduced with grape sugar 
and caustic potash. The precipitate of cuprous oxide is mixed 
with carbolic acid, gently heated, and mixed with linseed oil 
and mineral pigments. A cuprous phenylate is said to be 
formed and to be very poisonous to animal and vegetable 

Paint for Iron Ships. 

600 kilos, of asphalt or black pitch are mixed warm with 
480 lb. of boiled linseed oil. The mixture is cooled to 24° F., 
and to it is added a mixture of 600 kilos, graphite, 120 kilos, 
arsenite of copper and 640 kilos, of purified coal-tar oil. The 
whole is thoroughly mixed and applied to the hull in several 
coats. The arsenic in it is said to prevent the growth of 
barnacles, etc., on the ship. 



Luminous paint is a product which excites much interest, 
and meeting with much false judgment is distrusted by many 
people. It is therefore a matter of common interest to give 
below the results of accurate investigations, which lead us to 
form a correct opinion on the question. 

The attempts to make a luminous paint date very far back, 
and the Chinese are said to have been able to make from the 
most remote antiquity a paint out of oyster-shells and sulphur 
which shone in the dark. At the same time such things 
used to be looked upon as playthings, as they were too 
inefficient and too expensive for practical use on a large 

The first to succeed in making luminous paint whjch would 
glow even under oil or water on a large scale was Balmain, 
a native of Heligoland. Then and not before did such paints 
become of practical value. The price of such colours, which 
was M. 110 per lb. seven years ago, has now been brought 
down to one-twenty-fifth of that by improved machiniBry and 
methods of manufacture. 

In chemical composition the paint is a compound of alkaUne 
earth, sulphur, oxygen and a little water. It contains no 
phosphorus. Chemical analysis alone, however, is no criterion 
of its quality, as the light-giving power depends not only on 
proper composition but on a particular kind of molecular 
aggregation. It has consequently been found impossible to 
imitate Balmain's paint, now made by an English company 
which has acquired the patent. .^ ■• 

. . \.LUMmOUS PAINT: -; 15J 

, !^Iii^aiii's limiinout paint, whioh oaA: ^ ^^ either as an 
oil ^r a water colour, has the remarkable property of, as it 
were, storing dayUght or other strong Hght, and giving it out 
again ia the dark, and is so excessively sensitive to light that 
a single spark from an induction coil will at once make it 
luminous. The power of the paint to give out light depends 
upon the power and duration of the light to which it has 
been pretiously exposed, as wellas upon the mass of the 
paint itself, for the Hght penetrates through the whole mass 
of paint, and neither acts on nor proceeds from the surface 

Hence the thicker the colour is laid on, and the longer 
lastirig and more powerful the light which has acted upon it 
has been, the longer and stronger it will shine in the dark. 
If suddenly brought from Hght to darkness the paint first 
glows with a violet Hght, which finally becomes white, and 
then gradually gets weaker and weaker until the stock of 
stpr^d-up energy is entirely expended. 

■If the paint is then brought from darkness to Hght it begins 
to store up again, and if exposed during the daytime it will 
absorb enough to shine throughout the longest winter night. 
Accumtdation of dirt on the surface naturally hinders both 
absorption and radiation. Heat has a special effect upon 
luminous paint, and by making the Hght it gives out stronger 
only allows it to last for a correspondingly shorter time. 

Hydrochloric and ' nitric acids destroy the luminosity as to 
vai^ipi^hes, vehicles and pigments containing lead, so that as a 
vehicle and as a protection for luminous paint special pre- 
parations are needed, and if anything has to be written on 
the surf ace a special pigment must be used. 
, Objects which are already painted with an ordinary oil 
colour mu6t be primed with a neutral ground colour before 
having luminous paint applied to them. Such a priming is 
cbej^, and; it is to be recommended even on unpainted sur- 
faces if tbey.are rough or porous, as they enable the luminous 


painir to appear to much greater advantage by ^ving k a 
smooth surface. Three coats of luminous paint are enough 
in all cases, and it is at least as durable as the best oil paint, 
especially when varnished over by a suitable varnish. One 
pound of luminous paint will cover with three coats an area 
of twelve square feet. 

Luminous water colour has the same general properties as 
the oil paint. But like all water colours it should only be 
used indoors, and not in the open air or on objects exposed 
to the weather. It is sold as a dry powder which is stirred 
up with a litre and a half of lukewarm water to every 10 lb. 
of pigment. The resulting mixture is enough to give three 
coats to 70 square feet of surface. Objects of unpainted 
wood, plaster, papier-ma,ch6, etc., are grounded before the 
application of luminous paint with a solution of pure gelatine 
in 12 parts of hot water, to fill the pores and prevent waste 
of the luminous paint. Luminous paint must be appHed 
with perfectly clean brushes and must be kept stirred up 
during use. Every coat must be dry before another is laid 

Although success is certain when a luminous paint has 
been used with rigid attentions to the directions,* it is import- 
ant to note that it is only properly effective in real darkness. 
Where there is partial light or in artificial light the effect is 
spoiled and the use of the paint only leads to mistaken judg- 
ment. It would, for example, be folly in towns which are 
lighted at night, while a finger-post by a country roadside 
needs merely the application of luminous paint to make it as 
useful by night as by day. 

Many trials made with luminous paint in unsuitable places 
have caused it to be depreciated. It must be remembered, 
too, that a luminous paint only shines by emitting stored 
energy, and must consequently be afforded the necessary 
intervals for renewing its stock, if it is to continue to be of 
service. At the entrances of and inside dark rooms in which 


highly inffammable goods are stored it is an excellent plan to 
use placards painted in luminous paint, only remembering 
that they must be exposed to daylight at intervals. They 
should therefore be placed where they are exposed to light 
in the daytime, or they may be made movable so that they 
can be taken out of the room occasionally. They will then 
allow people to go about freely in the darkened room and 
save much time and trouble. 

As luminous paint shines equally well under water, divers 
can work in deep water, if their apparatus is painted with 
luminous paint. Mr. Hedger, of the Southampton Dock Com- 
pany, in a report on the raising of a ship sunk off that port, 
states that by means of luminous paint the divers were able 
to see the seams and bolts in the hull at a depth of eight 
metres well enough to be able to work with ease. It is 
possible for an object which has been exposed to a corre- 
sponding day's light to be recognised at the end of a following 
fifteen hours' night so much that large and clear writing can 
be distinctly read. 

Most people know from experience how convenient the use 
of luminous paint is on many small objects, such as match- 
boxes, lamp-shades, door-signs, etc., as it enables them to be 
foimd in the dark, and besides these uses of luminous paints 
there are others which show the great advantages of them, 
and which will now be briefly mentioned. 

For navigation purposes : buoys painted with luminous 
paint can be clearly seen 200 metres off in the darkest night 
and so show the way. Many lives would 'be saved if life 
belts were painted with luminous paint so that a drowning 
person could see by night the belt thrown over to him. 
What other chance has he of finding it ? The paint is also 
good for the piers of bridges, piles, lightships, railings, etc., 

On railways: for painting the insides of goods trucks, 
indicating level boards, numbers, level crossings which are 

^60; OIL COLOURS AND printers' inks. 

i^t lighted, all of which oaa thea be seen at a distance^ and 
people can see whether gates are shut or not. 

In the country : for painting finger-posts, milestones, notice 
boards, etc., in places destitute of artificial light and in country 
towns for the names of streets, the numbers of houses, hydrants, 

In military works : for painting objects destined for use in 
engineering works, such as piles, etc., and for making out the 
profiles and outlines of such works. 

In stores of gunpowder, spirit, petroleum, and the painting 
inside mines, ships' holds and other dark localities where 
there is fire-risk, we use tablets painted with luminous paint 
that can be removed on occasion so as to get the necessary 
exposure to daylight. These tablets may be of wood, glass, 
or zinc, and enable short jobs to be done in such places with- 
out the risk attending the use of lamps. 

Luminous paints cannot be too much recommended for 
theatres, factories and other places where large crowds 
assemble, to indicate exits and give other directions. If by 
any chance the ordinary illumination of the place should 
suddenly fail, every one can direct his steps with certainty. 

Luminous water colours are specially good for room walls, 
ceiHngs, passages, staircases, which get daylight in the day- 
time and for painting the stairs themselves in barracks and 
hospitals. They can also be used in wall-paper-making and 
photography, and for painting all kinds of paper work, and 
generally all objects which are not usually in the open air. 

Luminous paint is also made up with wax, and in this way 
is largely used by jewellers, makers of glass ornaments, and 
in making fish-bait. 

The preparation of luminous paint is as follows : — 

Oyster-shells are cleaned with warm water, and put in the 
fire for half an hour, then taken out, allowed to cool, ground, 
and freed from worthless grey particles. The powder is inter- 
stratified with layers of sulphur in a crucible, and the lid is 


then luted on with a thick paste of sand and beer. When 
the crucible has been red-hot for an hour, it is allowed to 
cool. The white powder in it is then carefully sieved, and 
mixed with gum-water as a vehicle. 

An invention patented by G. Schatte of Dresden some time 
ago has the object of preparing durable white or coloured 
paints which are luminous, but of which the colour remains 
the same in daylight. To effect this, Zanzibar or akuri copal 
is fused over a charcoal fire and 15 parts of the mass are 
dissolved in 60 parts of French oil of turpentine, filtered, and 
mixed with 25 parts of pure Unseed oil which has been heated 
and partially cooled again. The varnish thus obtained is 
worked up into a luminous paint in a paint-mill by one of the 
following processes. Iron rollers must not be used, as any 
fragments of iron which got into the paint would impair its 

The varnish as sold almost always contains lead or man- 
ganese, which has a tendency to impair the luminosity of the 
calcium sulphide. 

A pure white luminous paint is prepared by mixing 40 lb. 
of the above varnish with 6 lb. of prepared sulphate of barium, 
6 lb. of prepared calcium carbonate, 12 lb. of prepared 
white zinc sulphite, and 36 lb. of good luminous calcium 
sulphide to an emulsion,- and then making the whole very 
fine in the paint-mill. 

A red luminous paint is prepared by mixing 50 lb. of the 
varnish with 8 lb. of prepared sulphate of barium, 2 lb. of 
prepared madder-lake, 6 lb. of prepared realgar (red sulphide 
of arsenic) and 34 lb. of good luminous calcium sulphide, 
worked up in the paint-mill. 

For an orange paint, 46 lb. of the varnish are mixed with 
17i lb. of prepared barium sulphate, 1 lb. of prepared Indian 
yellow, li lb. of prepared madder-lake and 34 lb. of good 
luminous calcium sulphide. 

For a yellow paint, 48 lb. of the varnish are mixed with 



10 lb, of prepared barium sulphate, 8 lb. of barium ohromate, 
and 34 lb. of good luminous calcium sulphide. 

For a green paint, 48 lb. of the varnish are mixed with 10 
lb. of prepared barium sulphate, 8 lb. of chrome-green, 34 lb. 
of good luminous calcium sulphide. 

For a blue paint, 42 lb. of the varnish are mixed with 10*2 
of prepared barium sulphate, 6-4 of ultramarine, 5*4 of cobalt 
blue and 36 lb. of good luminous calcium sulphide. 

For a violet paint, 42 lb. of the varnish are mixed with 
10*2 lb. of prepared barium sulphite, 2*8 lb. of ultramarine 
violet, 9 lb. of arsenate of cobalt and 36 lb. of good luminous 
calcium sulphide. 

For a grey paint, 45 lb. of the varnish are mixed with 6 lb. 
of prepared barium sulphate, 9 lb. of prepared carbonate of 
Hme, i lb. of ultramarine blue, i lb. of zinc sulphite grey 
and 36 lb. of good luminous calcium sulphide. 

For a yellowish-brown paint, 48 lb. of the varnish are 
mixed with 10 lb. of prepared barium sulphate, 8 lb. of 
orpiment and 34 lb. of good luminous calcium sulphide. 

Luminous paints for artistic purposes are prepared by 
substituting for the varnish in the above recipes the same 
quantity of pure poppy oil and grinding especially fine. 

For luminous oil paints, the varnish is replaced by an equal 
quantity of cold pressed linseed oil, thickened by boiling. 

All the luminous paints above given can be used for coloured 
papers and other purposes by leaving out the varnish and 
grinding up the soHds with water and a vehicle free from 
acid. Luminous wax paints can also be made for painting 
on glass vessels and the like, by substituting 10 per cent, of 
Japan wax, and 2J per cent, of olive oil for the varnish. The 
80 prepared wax-paints can be used on porcelain, which are 
then baked without access of air, or varnished over with 


These include pigments rubbed up with poppy, linseed or 
nut oil, and used by artists for their special purposes, and 
the principles of their manufacture are the same as for 
ordinary oil paints. We only choose purer and more reli- 
able pigments and are more particular in choosing the oil, 
and give the paints a much more thorough rubbing up in the 
paint-mill or with the muUer. 

With reference to pigments it must be remembered that 
we have now many more of them than formerly ; it may be 
a question whether this is an advantage from an artistic 
point of view. Although in former times the choice of pig- 
ments was limited, they were at least reliable, and have lasted 
for centuries as fresh as at first. Now we have an untold 
number of pigments of every conceivable v.shade of which a 
large proportion change in a short time so much that the 
painter fails to recognise his own work. 

With four pigments only, says John (Die Malerei der Alien, 
Berlin, 1846), viz,, white, Attic yellow ochre, Sinope red, and 
lampblack or ivory black, Apelles, Echion, Melanthus and 
Nicomachus, all very famous painters, executed those im- 
mortal works single specimens of which were the treasures 
of a city. Pliny, from whom this information is derived, 
continues as follows: "But now that purple glitters on the 
walls, and India sends us the mud of its rivers, and the blood 
of its dragons and elephants, noble painting has ceased to 
exist ". 


Among the Egyptians the number of paints which were 
allowed to be used for artistic purposes was limited, at first 
to five, but later to seven. The tools which- served them for 
maulstick and palette at the same time show a row of seven 
hollows intended to receive the paints. 

It would naturally .take us too far to follow up the further 
increase in the number of pigments. The fact is that the 
masters of the old Itahan and of the later Dutch schools knew 
and used a very considerable number of them. Even then 
artists used colours which have no pretension to permanency, 
and which the artists of to-day will not use. The oldest 
Florentine painters, for example, had not only real ultra- 
marine, but biadetto or what we now call mountain blue, 
and indigo. For yellow they had massicot, for orange orpi- 
ment, besides gamboge and Naples yellow. Gamboge has 
now almost gone out of use in oil-painting. As a red they 
used pink from Brazil wood, as well as English red lead, 
dragon's blood, vermilion, and hematite or sinopia ; for green 
they had verdigris and another copper-green. We also hear 
of a red called kermes,^ as a rich Enghsh colour which was 
extracted out of dyed cloth imported from England. The 
Venetians seem to have used this as an oil paint at a very 
early period. Madder and cochineal were used in very early 
times, and also asphaltum, which first appears in the time of 
Titian; and we also have accounts of colours made from 
flowers, yellow from the crocus (saffron), red from violets, 
and pink from ivy-sap. Thus the number of colouring 
matters in use was continually increasing, and while the 
Egyptians, Assyrians, Pompeians and Herculaneans used as 
pigments first the natural earths and then those made from 
stones, and finally chemical compounds for the preparation 
of which no small skill is required, we find in the studios of 
the Middle Ages complete colour laboratories, because in 
those days the painters preferred to prepare their own colours. 
^ Closely allied to the cochineallnsect. — Tr. 


Now things have changed. The artist buys his colours 
from manufacturers, and it is no uncommon thing for. price 
lists to contain the names of over 300 possible and im- 
possible pigments, including shades which cannot be got 
except by the most desperate mixing. We also have whole 
series of lakes made with aniline dyes and alumina, 
which lose their colour very quickly when exposed to light, 
to say nothing of earth-pigments beautified with anilines, 
which have the same degree of durabiUty. With regard 
to much of the material now offered by dealers to artists, 
the German Society for the Promotion of Eational Methods 
of Painting,* which is located in Munich, has decided on 
fixing upon a scale of normal colours, in which only those 
colours which are known to be fast to light and air are 
included. Such alone should be used and the scale is 
here given: — 


Kremser white, zinc white. 


Pale Naples yellow, dark Naples yellow, reddish Naples 
yellow, pale and dark cadmium, orange cadmium, pale ochre, 
pale gold ochre, dark gold ochre. Sienna earth, Pozzuoli 


Pale and dark English red, mountain cinnabar, Chinese 
cinnabar, patent cinnabar, dark and violet madder lake. 


Dark ochre, burnt dark ochre, burnt green ochre (Bo- 
hemian), burnt Sienna, Cyprian umber, burnt Cyprian umber, 
asphalt, mummein. 

. Cobalt blue, dark and light ultramarine, Prussian blue. 

Warm chrome green, chrome green, pale and dark cobalt 
green, green Bohemian ochre, Veronese earth. 



Ivory blacky lampblack. 

All these pigments, to be fit for artists' use, must be 
ground as fine as possible and be very carefully levigated 
so as to get a very soft and delicate powder. Thorough 
drying of this powder at from 80° to 100° C, until cessa- 
tion of loss of weight shows that all water has been ex- 
pelled, has been recommended of late, because the colour 
then requires much less oil, and this is, as we shall see 
presently, of great advantage to the purity of the tint. 

As vehicles, the brothers Van Eyck in the fourteenth 
century used oil, so that they are the founders of painting 
in oils, as contrasted with the previous encaustic style, 
although it is now said that Heraclius, who lived in the 
tenth century, has left an account among many other 
secrets of the use of pigments with oil and even with 
boiled oil. 

The oils chiefly used are linseed, poppy and nut oil, 
and there appears to be no doubt that many painters 
early employed in addition colophony and mastic, even 
amber and copal, and also wax, to make the pigments 
give a smooth mass. Baron von Tankenheim in 1770 pro- 
posed a pomatum -like composition of wax and oil (of 
which, however, no more detailed particulars are given) as 
a colour- vehicle ; and Paillot de Montabert used a solution 
of wax in cold turpentine mixed with a Httle naphtha, and 
a little solution of copal and elemi in oil of turpentine. 

The pause of these additions is to be found in the fact that 
many colours mixed with linseed, poppy, or nut oil, particu- 
larly the last, become tough on keeping, and thus very diflB- 
oult to use. This occurs with lead- white and many of the 
earth-colours, and many heavy pigments, such as cinnabar, 
cannot be kept with oil alone, as their great specific gravity 
makes them settle out. In the making of oil paints, poppy and 
nut oil have shown themselves the best^ because they contain 

artists' colours. 167 

the least linoxyn ready made, and hence the destructive in- 
fluences of air and light take longer to affect them than other 
drying oils. Nut oil cannot be used for all purposes, especially 
for whites or pale hues, on account of its dark colour, and 
bleached poppy and linseed oils have therefore to be used. 

Pigments rubbed up thick with these oils, and having to 
be thinned for use, have other drawbacks besides the toughen- 
ing. Among these are darkening of colour after use, whites 
turning yellow if deprived of light, slow drying and the un- 
equal drying times of different colours, hardening from above 
downwards by the formation of a skin over the colour, and 
attempts to explain these matters seem to have shown that 
they are to a large extent due to the use of unnecessary 
quantities of oil. 

** It seems paradoxical," says Professor Petruschefifsky of 
St. Petersburg, ** but it is nevertheless true, that in oil paint- 
ing as little oil should be used as possible." We should 
therefore use as far as we can such paints as contain the 
least oil, because it is only in that way we can avoid the 
above-mentioned troubles. As a proof that oil paints should 
be made up with as little oil as possible we may mention 
water colours, where very small quantities of gum or honey 
form a sufficient vehicle. As, however, the pigment cannot 
be used with only just sufficient oil to bind it, we must add 
something besides which is not oil, e.g.^ an ethereal oil, such 
as oil of turpentine, of rosemary or lavender. When the 
colour is used, these evaporate, and the pigment is left with 
only the necessary amount of oil to bind it. 

This explanation is most instructive, and shows that we 
must give up the old process of rubbing up pigments with a 
pure drying oil only, and introduce instead a method depend- 
ing on the use of a mixed vehicle, consisting 

1. Of drying oil with a varying amount of ethereal oil 
according to the nature of the pigment, or 

2. Of drying oil, ethereal oil, and wax, or resin of a par- 


tieular kind. This is the principle of the Mussini colours! 
As the various pigments have various drying powers with the 
same vehicle, care must be taken in the manufacture to mix 
such pigments as dry quickly (such as lead-pigments) with 
raw oil, and those which dry slowly with oil which has been 
boiled or otherwise made more drying. Great care is here 
necessary to use no lead compounds, for making the oil drying, 
as the oil will then have a bad effect on the shade of certain 
pigtnents. Only pure manganese compounds should be used, 
and the oil should always be bleached afterwards in the sun 
to restore the original colour to the oil which has been 
darkened by the boiling. 

Schnitger's Oil Paints. 

According to the present practice, pigments for artists' use 
are rubbed up with oil, usually also with tallow or beeswax 
at the ordinary temperature, and in such proportions as to 
produce a mass of the consistency of butter. 

As experience has shown, an oil paint has more durability 
and less tendency to darken the less oil has been used with 
the pigment. 

(The first part of this assertion wants proof, as all our 
experience so far goes to show the contrary.) 

The object of the process of P. C. Schnitger of Berlin is to 
lessen the amount of oil while still securing the necessary soft- 
ness. The pigment is first mixed with the oil, but, in contrast 
with the practice hitherto prevailing, so as to make it thicker 
than it is to be when the paint is finished, and then has 
a preliminary passage through the paint- mill. The mass is 
then heated for some time, whereby it becomes first hard and 
brittle, and then again gradually softer and thinner, and 
finally tough. The heating is stopped at the soft stage and 
before toughness has set in, and the mass is quickly cooled. 

It is not now, however, very suitable for further grinding, 
and has to be put through the mill several times at the 


ordinary temperature. Finally, however, it acquires the 
necessary fineness, and can then be filled into tubes. 

The duration of the heating and the temperature to be 
employed varies in different cases. Paints which will stand 
a high temperature without alteration of shade are heated, 
about a kilo, at a time, for two hours on the average, at a rather 
high temperature. The larger the mass heated at once the 
longer the heating must last. 

To determine exactly whether the heating has lasted long 
enough, we take a small sample, cool it, and fill it into a tube, 
and see whether it can be pressed uniformly and easily out 
of the narrow orifice. If this is the case, the operation is 
finished. But if the paint only comes out by fits and starts, 
and requires great force, the heating must be continued. 
Paints which will not bear much heating, such as pale vege- 
table colours, are not to be heated above 100° C, and then 
take a day or two to finish, A few hours can be saved, how- 
ever, by heating the mass under a high pressure of air. 

To get this pressure, the vessel has to have only a Httle 
mass put into it and is closed with an air-tight cover. The 
expansion of the enclosed air on heating gives the pressure. 
Or a condensing pump may be used to force air into the vessel 
to any desired point. The test of the completion of the opera- 
tion is the same as that given above. 

The possible minimum of vehicle varies with the pigment 
and may be as high as 40 per cent, of the latter. The 
advantages of paints prepared by this method are : — 

1. Less darkening on account of the small amount of oil 
used. 2. Greater body because there is a larger proportion 
of pigment in the paint. 3. The colours dry on the canvas, 
even where thick, much sooner and more evenly than ordinary 
paints, especially than those containing beeswax and tallow, 
when the interior remains soft long after the surface has dried, 
i. Painting over is much sooner possible. S. The colours in 
the tubes retain their consistency unchanged for long periods. 


I do not think I can better characterise this process than 
by quoting the remarks of Dr. W. Reissig of Munich on the 

The expression ** oil-vehicle " is here use! in a sense 
which admits of many interpretations and is therefore un- 
reliable. What is an oil- vehicle? If we rub up any pigment 
fine with linseed or other drying-oil, and paint with the 
mixture, it dries, even if slowly, to a solid mass — the paint. 
Here pure raw linseed oil is the vehicle. On the other hand 
we know that the drying is much quicker if the oil has been 
boiled, with or without driers, so as to get boiled oil. Is this 
— made from the oil — also an oil- vehicle ; or only so when 
used without the addition of wax, etc. ? It is therefore clear 
that it is not permissible to use the term in question, as we 
do not know what materials the inventor has taken to make 
his paints. A further important point is the manner, stated 
by the inventor, in which the pigments behave when heated 
with the oil- vehicle : "As the heating proceeds, the mixture 
becomes first hard and brittle, and then softer again ". All 
this points to a decomposition occurring on account of the 
heat, and this is the more probable because ** when the mass 
becomes soft again the heating must be stopped ". A de- 
composition of the oil-vehicle with the pigment means either 
that the oil-vehicle is changed by the heat, or by chemical 
reaction with the hot pigment, or that the pigment itself is 

It is hence very probable that the oil has an altering action 
on the pigment. In this respect however various pigments 
must behave very differently, and nothing is said in the 
specification about anything of the kind. Science leads to 
the following conclusions. We know that certain mineral 
pigments, such as zinc oxide, ordinary lead-salts, etc., have 
the power of entering into combination with hot Unseed oil 
and saponifying it. Others, however, and the greater niunber, 
have no action on heated linseed oil, the ochres for example. 


But we must also here bear in mind that protracted heating 
alters the molecular constitution of bodies. This slightly 
affects the colour of pigments as a rule, and can only be 
excluded in the case of the process in question, when pig- 
ments are used for it which have been previously strongly 
heated, in their manufacture for example. Yellow iodide of 
mercury affords an example of this molecular change on 
heating. A temperature not far above 40° C. turns it red, 
and prolonged heating will convert soft transparent phos- 
phorus into an opaque brown mass, the so-called amorphous 

Such an action would certainly make the pigment more 
durable, because it would usually make it heavier and closer, 
just as great pressure would. These facts might give the 
process a very rational basis, but no allusion is made to them 
in the specification. Not a word is said about any change, 
however sHght, in the colour of the heated paint, and as 
such changes would certainly occur with certain pigments, 
we can only suppose that there are reasons for abstaining 
from mentioning them. With organic colouring matters, too, 
it is hard to see how molecular change can be avoided, 
although, as a temperature of 100° C. is not exceeded, its 
effects might be hardly perceptible. 

Finally one circumstance of theoretical importance must 
be mentioned. This is that solid bodies are better conductors 
of heat than fluids. It is therefore certain that when ac- 
companied by such large quantities of solid as the inventor 
uses, the oil would be heated much more rapidly and uni- 
formly than if heated by itself. Whether this might not 
change the vehicle itself may well be doubted. But with 
the special circumstances which must be maintained during 
the process, we have no direct evidence that such is the case. 

We stand then face to face with, an invention which we 
should wish t6 be a step forward in paint manufacture. But 
to be able to judge of it rightly we were obliged to experi- 


ment, and we have entered upon an accurate investigation^ 
the results of which are here briefly described. 

1. Experiments with Pure Linseed Oil, — As the specifica- 
tion does not exclude the use of pure linseed oil in paint 
manufacture, we began our researches with that substance. 
To be quite sure of our ground we used no bleached oil, as 
that substance may contain impurities resulting from its 
manufacture which would have had a bad effect. 

The oil we used was a perfectly natural, beautifully cleajr, 
and old-stocked sample. 

In the manner directed by the inventor, 1. pure zinc 
white, 2. pure ochre, 3. chrome yellow, were rubbed up 
with the oil in the proportions of 6 vols, pigment to 1 vol. 
linseed oil. 

The mixtures were put into suitable porcelain dishes and 
weighed. For the purposes of comparison and to see what 
effect the increase of temperature produces, some of the oil 
and some of the pigment were heated, each by itself, on the 
same sand-bath. The temperature was raised gradually and 
steadily. At 120" C. a few bubbles of gas were disengaged, 
and the mixtures became thicker, but not tough or brittle. 
The heating was continued with constant stirring. The 
mixture then turned liquid again, and remained so till the 
end of the two hours demanded by the specification. The 
dishes were then removed from the bath and r9.pidly cooled. 
Their contents could then be used without any more oil. 

It was interesting to note if the heating had caused any 
loss, indicating decomposition. When, however, the dishes 
were weighed it was found that the pure linseed oil had lost 
02 per cent, of its weight, the ochre mixture '05 per cent., 
and the zinc white mixture '03 per cent. These quantities 
are quite insignificant and afford no ground for assuming 
any marked decomposition (the chrome yellow dish had 
spurted over, so that it had to be left out of the reckoning). 

Neither the linseed oil nor the mixtures were much changed 


in colour by the heat. In fact it was difficult to tell the 
heated from the unheated. The pigments heated by them- 
selves were just a trifle darker. 

The masses obtained by this treatment did not dry as 
tapidly as might have been expected. The mixtures painted 
on glass took nearly five days to dry. The glass plates lay 
in a room only slightly heated, and the weather was wet and 
cold. The comparison sample made of ordinary linseed oil 
took about the same time, so that no noticeable advantage 

2. Experiments with Boiled Oil. — We convinced ourselves 
that the material used was quite pure. Its colour was a pale 

It was rubbed up with, 1. zinc white, 2. ochre, 3. chrome 
yellow, in the proportion of 5 vols, pigment to 1 vol. oil. 

The -mixtures were heated on a sand-bath in porcelain 
dishes, as above, and some of each of the pigments and some 
of the boiled oil were heated separately on the same bath 
with the mixtures. 

The temperature was raised with great care and steadiness, 
and with constant stirring. As in the other experiments the 
masses became thick between 120 and 160° C, but only the 
ochre appeared friable. As before a few gas bubbles appeared ; 
but there were perceptible changes in the appearance of the 
mixtures. The zinc-white mixture became paler, and the 
chrome yellow one much darker. The ochre mixture, how- 
ever, hardly changed at all. At the end of the two hours' 
treatment and stirring, the dishes were rapidly cooled and 
the drying properties at once tested. 

It must be mentioned that subsequent grinding diminished 
the change in colour suffered by the zinc white and the 
chrome yellow, but did not bring them back to the purity of 
colour possessed before heating. No difference was percep- 
tible in the case of the ochre. 

The products painted very well, but did not dry so quickly 


as the inventor claims. The zinc- white mixture took five 
days to dry, the ochre mixture four days, the chrome yellow 
mixture four and a half days. In any case they have no ad- 
vantage as regards drying over ordinary good oil paint. 
Some pigments, in fact, painted on at the same time were 
dry sooner. Whether the pigments prepared by the patent 
process are more durable than others time, of course, can 
alone decide. 

From these experiments we may conclude that the chief 
advantage in the patent process must consist in economy of 
vehicle, and that it will give good oil paints with pure and 
dry materials of good quality. If 40 per cent, of oil is really 
saved cannot be ascertained, as we had none of the paints 
prepared by the inventor to analyse. 

MussiNi Paints. 
These are a new sort of artists' oil colours invented by 
Professor Cesare Mussini, and put on the market by Schminke 
& Co. of Dusseldorf . They may be considered, according to 
Horadan's report of 18th February, 1887, to the German 
Society for the Promotion of Eational Painting, as ethereal 
resin oil colours. If the name Mussini is retained it will be 
in honour of a man whose knowledge of the quaHties neces- 
sary in fine paints has enabled him to establish a principle 
highly favourable to the users. The Mussini colours have 
the eminent advantage over ordinary ** novelties " in the fact 
that they have been tested by the existence of pictures painted 
with them fifty years ago. In 1873 the Kussian artist 
Airasowsky wrote how splendidly the pictures painted in 
St. Isaac's Cathedral at St. Petersburg by Mussini in 1843 
to 1846 had lasted in comparison with others painted at the 
same time with ordinary oil paints. These pictures still 
remain in all their original freshness and clearness. The 
Florentine Academy also testifies to the excellent preservation 
of some large pictures which Mussini painted on a lime ground 


in Florence. Von Olfers of Berlin testifies to an extremely 
convincing proof of the durability of the Mussini colours. 
When Mussini travelled from Berlin to St. Petersburg, in 
1846, one brick was painted with ordinary oil paint, another 
with fresco, and a third with Mussini colours. The three 
were put together on to the roof of the museum. When 
Mussini came back two years afterwards, the bricks were 
examined. The exposure to the weather had entirely de- 
stroyed the applications to the first two bricks, but the 
Mussini colours on the third brick were unchanged. 

Mussini colours have three chief differences from ordinary 
poppy oil paints. 

1. Each paint is treated with regard to its own special 
nature, and contains only as much fatty oil as is absolutely 
indispensable to bind it. The rest of the vehicle consists of 
ethereal oils, which give the necessary thinness. 

2. Every colour contains a certain amount of resin pro- 
portioned to the oil also put with the pigment. 

The paints dry uniformly. They quickly become plastic, 
and then dry from within out^yards, i.e.y in the exact reverse 
way to ordinary oil paints. With these a skin forms on the 
outside, and the inside remains moist for a long time. 

The following analyses show the differences between 
Mussini and ordinary paints with reference to the amount 
of oil in them : — 

White lead 

Percentage of 

oil usually. 


Percentage of oil in 

Mussini paint. 


Chrome yellow 






Gassel brown . 



Cobalt blue 



Sienna earth . 



The rest of the vehicle is an essential oil, which evaporates 
and makes the paint dry very clear, 

Mussini called the vehicle of his paints sago (from sugare, 
to dry). What the fatty oil in it is, and what the resin is 


(soft resins should make the paint dry uniformly) Horadan 
does not say, because he is bound to silence, but hut oil is 
not far from the mark, and is much more suitable for the 
purpose than either linseed or poppy oil. 

The preparation of Mussini colours varies according to 
their intended use. One description is prepared for picture 
painting ; another for wall decoration. 

They ofifer no difficulties in use for easel-painting, but on 
the contrary much facilitate it. They can be applied to wood, 
stone, metal, paper, in short to any soHd surface without 
any fear that the colour will come off, as Mussini colours 
adhere much better than ordinary oil-paints. The surface 
to be painted should first be well rubbed over with medium, 
which increases the adhesion of the paint. The characteristic 
method of drying of the Mussini paints has special advantages. 
Effects can be produced from the first which are unattainable 
with ordinary oil paints. A specially important property in 
picture painting is that every coat sets at once, so that no 
colour runs, and it is possible to paint on a new coat over 
the first in a very short timie. 

The Normal Pigments op the German Society for the 
Promotion op Rational. Painting. 

This society, wishing to free the market from the many 
non-durable pigments which many makers offer to aJrtists, to 
the injury of the artists and of art, has founded an institution 
for testing pigments and vehicles, and permits every manu- 
facturer who offers the necessary guarantees and who will 
conform to the conditions to be presently stated to sell his 
products as ** normal colours of the German Society for the 
Promotion of Rational Painting ". 

These conditions are : — 

1. Every manufacturer wishing to sell his goods under the 
above title must send notice to the society and at the same 



time samples of his pigments to the testing station of the 

2. The testing station haying examined the pigments, the 
manufacturer may be called upon to make a first and only 
payment to the station of M. 100. 

3. The manufacturer must bind himself always to use for 
his colours the same pigments as he has sent to the testing 
station and which have been there approved, and, when he 
has begun business, to send two sets of filled tubes to the 

4. Permission to use the title will not be given until the 
raw materials have been approved by the testing station and 
will emanate from the committee of the society. 

5. The control is continuous, and the permission will be 
withdrawn if the manufacturer alters the composition of his 
paints without notice to the society, or does not make them 
of the same quality as before. 

6. The title will only extend to substances included in the 
list of the committee. (This has been already given, see 
p. 165.) 

7. The normal-colours must be labelled according to the 
following form : — 

Normal Paint 
of the German Society for the Promotion 
of Rational Painting. 

Finest prepared oil paint. 

Light ochre. 
Gere clair. 

Louis Edgar Andes, Vienna. 

No. 1 must be exactly as set forth. 


No. 2 is filled up by 


lihe manufacturer, and shows how the paint is made, t.e., 
whether it is an oil paint, an oil- wax paint, or resin paint or 
prepared after Mussini or Keim, etc. 

No. 3 gives the name of the paint as determined by the 
society, and both in German and French. It is specially im- 
portant that there should be uniformity of terminology. 

No. 4 gives the name of the manufacturer, and is filled up 
as he chooses. 

8. The control over the normal paints is confined to the 
pigments. It does not extend to the vehicles, as at present 
no standard for these can be fixed. The fixing of such a 
standard is however kept in sight. Nevertheless the com- 
mittee considers it desirable that the oil present should be 
named, and it recommends the adoption of vehicles free from 

The general method of testing the normal paints is as 
follows : — 

(a) The pigment is subjected to a complete qualitative and 
quantitative analysis, carried out if possible by specialists, to 
get an accurate idea of its composition. 

(b) The pigment undergoes a special microscopic examina- 

(c) To ascertain accurately all the chemical, physical, and 
optical characters considered important as regards the use of 
the pigment, it is subjected to the action of — 

1. The air. 

2. Sunlight or electric light, both dried and diflfused. 

3. Atmospheric agencies, e,g,, rain, frost, snow, etc. 

4. Acids and alkalies. 

5. A red heat and 

6. Various vehicles. 

The tests of exposure to light and air are carried out both 
with and without vehicle, in the following manner, so as to 
get accurate results. 

Tests with the Powdered Pigment. — Thepigment is powdered 


SO as to go through a sieve with about 500 meshes to the 
square centimetre, and then exposed both in open and closed 
glasses, some samples to direct, some to diffuse light, while 
others are kept in the dark, and the various changes are 

Tests with the Pigment Buhhed up with Vehicle, — The 
rubbed pigment is exposed to the same series of tests as 
above, being painted on ground glass, the most inactive basis 
that can be found. 

Each sample is divided into three, one being left unvar- 
nished, another varnished with a solution of pure mastic in 
oil of turpentine, and the third both varnished and covered 
air-tight with a glass plate cemented over it. The paint is 
varnished as soon as it ceases to be sticky, and the glass 
plate is laid on as soon as the varnish is dry. 

The vehicles used in the tests are : — 

1. Purified unbleached linseed oil. 

2. Purified unbleached poppy oil. 

3. As a water-soluble vehicle, gelatine. 

4. As a strong alkaline vehicle, waterglass. 

In all tests the proportion between vehicle and pigment is 
accurately recorded. 

The pigment to be tested is well washed, dried at 100° C. 
until its weight is constant, and used when cold. Wherever 
possible full particulars of the time when and the place 
whence the pigment was received are to be recorded. 

Finally it is to be remarked that we are not to understand 
that normal paints are new paints or paints made by particu- 
lar makers, but that only long known, durable, and pure 
pigments can have a claim to the title, and those whose 
composition is known to the society and is controlled by it, 
and which therefore the artist can accept and use as normal 
paints guaranteed as to purity. The same name will then 
always mean exactly the same pigment. 


Cotton Seed Oil, and Its Detection in Oil Paints, 
Particularly in Artists' Colours. 

Dr. Hans Stockmeier of Nuremberg has instituted tests of 
a number of artists' colours to see whether they were really 
made of pure linseed or poppy oil, and has established beyond 
the possibihty of doubt that no small part of the artists' oil- 
colours sold are made with cotton oil, which is at present 
decidedly cheaper than either poppy or linseed. 

Dr. Stockmeier tested the following paints : — 

1. Permanent flake white, from a London firm. 

2. Light red, from Winsor and Newton, of London. 

3. Burnt sienna, from Dr. Schonfield & Co., of Dusseldorf. 

4. Chinese ochre, from G. B. Moeves, of Berlin. 

6. Brown red, a sketching colour from Schminke & Co., of 

The five tube-colours were first extracted in weighed 
quantities and in closed vessels with ether in four separate 
portions. The collective ethereal extract from each was 
evaporated down on the waterbath, and the remaining oil 
was then dissolved in petroleum ether. The petroleum ether 
was then distilled off and the residual oil was weighed. The 
results were as follows : — 

1. 44*078 grammes gave 7 '162 grammes oil = 16-23 per cent. 

2. 8-1845 

3. 19-8926 

4. 13-286 
6. 36-233 

The oil from — 

1. Was thin, nearly colourless, with a yellow tinge. 

2. Thin and yellowish. 

3. Thick, nearly colourless, with a yellow tinge. 

4. Thick and yellowish. 

6. Butter-like in consistency and yellow. 

Bach oil was now tested by Hiibl's iodine method as follows : 
A known weight of the oil was weighed out, dissolved in 
chloroform, and then left for two hours in a closed vessel 


„ =41-89 


„ =59-16 

5-9923 „ 

„ =45-1 


,, =31-11 



with an accurately measured volume of solution of mercury 
iodo-ohloride. Then water and a 10 per cent, solution of 
potassium iodide were added, the solution was bleached with 
sodium thiosulphate and then titrated back with 1 per cent, 
starch paste and the mercury iodo-chloride, till a blue colour 
appeared. The strengt.h of the iodine solution was accurately 
known, and 10 c.c. of it corresponded to 8*34 c.c. of the solu- 
tion of thiosulphate. The strength of the latter was got with 
sublimed iodine as 26*738 grammes iodine per litre. Two 
tests were made with each sample. 



C.C. of Mercury 



c.c. of Sodium 



Iodine No. 



Value of 

Iodine No. 

















151-7 \ 


116-9 \ 


99-1 \ 


97-7 \ 







When the iodine numbers had thus been obtained, the 
fusion and solidifying points of the fatty acids present were 

For this purpose a sample of each oil was boiled with 
alcoholic potash, and the soap was decomposed with hydro- 
chloric acid. The following table describes the fatty acids : — 


Fusion Point 

Solidifying Point 






Partly solidified 

at 18 

Did not solidify 

at ordinary 





The acid was a 
blood red. 



These high fusion points created a presumption that cotton 
oil was present in Nos. 1,3,4 and 5, and no other oil in 4 and 
5, and that linseed oil was also present in Nos. 1 and 3. The 
iodine number and general behaviour of the fatty acid of No. 
2 showed that the paint was made with linseed oil only. 

Further special tests were made from cotton oil and 
checked by control tests made with a sample of pure cotton 

The elaidine test with nitric acid and copper gave a negative 
result at first with all the samples, but after two days pure 
cotton oil, and Nos. 4 and 5 were ointment-like, Nos. 1 and 3 
partly so. No. 2 remained liquid. 

On treatment with nitric acid of sp. gr. 1*33 the following 
results were obtained : — ^ 


Action in the Cold. 

Action on the Water-bath. 

Cotton oil. 






Yellowish brown. 
Pale yellow. 
Yellowish brown. 

>» »» 
>» »» 

Brownish red ^ » ,. 

\ Action vigorous. 

»» »» J 

Red ^ 
Brownish red I Action vigorous. 

>, »> J 

After eighteen hours all the samples had an ointment-like 

These results confirm the former conclusions as to the 
nature of the vehicle. 

Further tests for resins, parafl&n and resin oils gave 
negative results. For the presence of resins the full solubility 
of the oils in petroleum is partial evidence. 

The results obtained also show that the cotton oil present 
had been boiled and in every case bleached afterwards. This 
is shown by the low iodine number (that of raw cotton oil is 
105 to 108), and the strong acid reaction of the ethereal 
solution observed, especially with Nos. 4 and 5, and finally 
by the ointment-like consistency produced by the presence 


of free acid shown at the ordinary temperature by the oil 
from No. 5. 

Boiled cotton oil is about on a par with poppy oil as regards 
drying, and the cotton oil is evidently intended as a substitute 
for the dearer poppy oil. The Hnseed oil in No. 2 has also 
evidently been boiled or at least was a mixture of boiled and 
imboiled oil. This is the more probable supposition. Here, 
too, the low iodine number is a sufficient indication, and also 
the blood-red colour of the fatty acid. This colour points to 
the presence of a large proportion of linoxic acid. 

Pure linseed oil has an iodine number of 166 to 160, with 
a mean of 158. Von Hiibl found that of boiled linseed oil to 
be 148. 

If we sum up our results, we find that 

No. 1 has a vehicle consisting of 72 per cent, cotton oil 
and 28 per cent, linseed oil. 

No. 2 was prepared with linseed oil alone. Here we 
cannot lay much stress on the iodine number, 148, for boiled 
oil, which can only be accepted with great reserve, as further 
determinations of it are necessary. But we may say, with 
this reservation, that the vehicle consisted of 66 per cent, 
boiled and 34 per cent, unboiled linseed oil. 

In No. 3 the oil was a mixture of 82*4 per cent, of cotton 
oil and 17*6 per cent, of linseed oil. 

In Nos. 4 and 5 it was cotton oil only. 

We are now met by the question how far the artist is 
injured by the most inferior of these products, whether, that 
is, such a composition of the paint will have any adverse 
influence on the properties for which it is valued in picture 
painting, namely, beauty and durability. There is no positive 
experience to be appealed to in this matter, but it behoves 
the manufacturer to abstain from using vehicles of which the 
effects are unknown. 

These results are also here stated to show how widely the 
tendency to use cheaper oils has penetrated into the trade. 



Printers' inks may be divided into two great groups : 
Black printing inks ; Coloured printing inks. 

This classification is, of course, obvious. 

Both classes consist of vehicle and pigment. The same 
vehicle may be used for either kind, but the pigments are 
necessarily different, and while with black ink we have 
to do with lampblack, an extremely light pigment, we find 
for coloured inks many heavy ones used, such as lead, 
mercury and chrome compounds. 

Far more black than coloured ink is used, and we shall 
consider it first after discussing the vehicle used for both 

The vehicle being one of the two essential ingredients 
of a printers' ink must, of course, be made of faultless 
quality before a good ink can be got from it. The pro- 
perties which the ink itself must have must be kept in 
view in the manufacture of the vehicle. These I now 
give, and will follow them with a recapitulation of the 
properties which the vehicle must have in consequence. 

A good printing ink must — 

1. Have a perfectly uniform syrupy consistency, and if 
black must be of a shining blue black, not a grey black. 
No lumps of pigment must be discoverable in it, or any 
other impurities. 

2. It must come freely off the rollers and on to the 
type in the machine. 

3. Its colour must be pure. It must not smudge the 
types, and must be easily washed off them. 


4. It must dry neither too fast nor too slowly. If it 
dries too slowly, it hinders moving and folding the sheets, 
which would be very awkward in printing a daily paper. 
If it dries too fast, it would set on the types, during print- 
ing, and make the paper stick to them and tear, and so 
stop the press. It would also tear pieces out of the ink- 
ing rollers, which would get on to the types. 

6. The ink when dry must not set off on to another 
sheet, or else two printed sides which had come together 
would become illegible, and it would also dirty the hands 
of readers, a circumstance ' which has caused trouble to 
newspaper owners before now. 

6. The ink must have no strong smell, or if it has the 
smell must vanish when the ink is dry. 

7. The ink must not leave greasy margins round the 
letters when it is dry. This is specially important in book 
printing, but is to be avoided in newspaper work, although 
newspapers are printed and read to-day, and thrown away 

From these we deduce the following requirements for 
the vehicle: — 

1. It must be of perfectly uniform consistency, without 
any bits of film, or soHd lumps of any kind. It must be 
filtered after it is made and kept in clean and well-closed 
vessels, so that no dust or dirt can get at it. 

2. It must be tough but not sticky from resin mixed with it. 

3. It must not be too weak, or the printing will smudge, 
and compositions which contain resin, resin oil, parafl&n oil, 
etc., are very difficult to dissolve in printers' lye, so that 
the formes are difficult to clean when they are used. 

4. It must take the right time to dry, but the oxidising 
agents used in making ordinary boiled oil for paints must 
not be used in its manufacture. 

^ - 5. It must have the necessary power of binding the lamp- 
black or other pigment. 


6. It must have no disagreeable smell. When linseed oil 
and resin are used in making it, the smell is never unpleasant, 
but with resin oil or parafl&n oil, additions which cannot 
always be avoided for reasons of price, the case is otherwise. 

7. All unbound oil must be avoided, so that all linseed oil 
must be boiled thick, for such oil gives no greasy border 
round the letters. 

A vehicle consisting only of linseed oil answers all these 
requirements, and they must not be expected too strictly 
from those containing resin, coal-tar, parafl&n or resin oil, etc. 

Linseed oil at a temperature of 380° to 400° C, i.e., when 
it may be expected to catch fire every moment, changes to 
a thick, tough, sticky mass, which makes no greasy mark 
on paper either by itself or when mixed with pigment. By 
regulating the duration of this high temperature we are able 
to govern the thickness of the oil, and can even by long 
boiling get a perfectly solid mass which will not yield to the 
pressure of the finger. 

No oxidising agents may be added to accelerate the manu- 
facture of a vehicle intended for printing ink, because they 
produce the stickiness which we have said must be avoided, 
and because oil boiled with lead or manganese compounds 
alters for the worse when kept. 

According to the thickness required the oil is boiled for 
a longer or shorter time. The practice formerly universal 
and considered essential, of setting fire to the linseed oil, is 
not followed now in any well-managed factory, as it darkens 
the oil very much, and that makes it unsuitable for coloured 
inks of light tints, although it does not matter for black ones. 

The demand for cheap ink, especially for newspaper print- 
ing, has led to attempts to get rid of thick boiled linseed oil 
in favour of cheaper materials, such as resin oil, resin, parafl&n 
oil, coal-tar, turpentine and soap. With these we get com- 
position vehicles, and they have already been brought to 
such perfection that practically all newspaper ink is made 



with them. For better class printing, however, they have 
not yet been made suitable. For that we have still to restrict 
ourselves to a vehicle of boiled linseed oil only. 

Any strong and heat-resisting vessel will serve for this 

manufacture, and no particular shape is indicated. Iron or 
copper is the best material. 

In former times pear-shaped vessels with narrow mouths 
were used, made of iron or copper, but this shape has been 
entirely discarded and vessels are used which are deeper than 
they are wide. Experience has shown that there is a bulk 


above which the oil becomes unmanageable, and it is there- 
fore advisable not to use vessels holding over 100 kilos., even 
with mechanical appliances for lifting them, while in the 
absence of such, the capacity of the vessel should in no case 
exceed 30 kilos, ot 40 at the most. Enamelled cast-iron is 
an excellent material for these vessels, while copper, which 
is very apt to oxidise and turn the oil green, is to be avoided. 
I use for boiling the arrangement shown in fig. 66. It 
consists of a brickwork fireplace, ashpit, and flues, an iron 
grate, and a plate of iron 2 cm. thick with a circular hole in 
the middle of it to receive the oil kettle. The brickwork 
hearth is a square of about 1} metre wide, and about a foot 
high. The kettle, of enamelled cast-iron, is of the same 
diameter at top and bottom, but somewhat contracted in the 
centre and with a concave bottom. Its height is 65 cm. and 
its width about 45, and it holds if filled to the brim between 
60 and 60 kilos, of oil. For lifting the kettle there are two 
wrought-iron rods, 2 to 3 metres long, which are passed 
through rings attached to the sides of the kettle. This en- 
ables the workmen carrying the kettle to be at some little 
distance from it, which is very necessary in case of the oil 
catching fire. An iron stand or tripod is provided to take 
the kettle when it is off the fire. As can be clearly seen from 
the figure the kettle is heated at the bottom only, but that is 
quite enough to raise the contents to the high temperature 
necessary. To keep up the fire charcoal, coal, or coke is 

Andres' Boiling Apparatus. 

Andres has invented a very pretty apparatus which is 
shown in fig. 56. 

It consists of a cylinder C of sheet copper. Half-way up 
it is surrounded by an annular basin E. The mouth of the 
cylinder is surrounded by a strong iron ring to which the 
chains K of a tackle are fixed, whereby the cylinder can be 

printers' inks : vehicles. 


quickly lifted out of the fire. There is also a cover D which 
fits nearly air-tight on to the mouth of the cylinder. The 
whole apparatus should stand under a brick arch as a safe- 
guard against fire. This arch should have an opening above 
into a chimney with a good draught, to get rid of the fumes 
from the hot oil. The attendant must have a stool high 
enough to let him get samples out of the cylinder. An 

Fig. 66. 

apprentice has charge of the crane, to lift the cylinder and 
move it to one side when ordered. 

Other arrangements of this apparatus are also made ; one 
is to put the cylinder in a carrier on rails, as a substitute for 
the crane, so that Ithe cylinder can easily be put over or off 
the fire as may be required, or even into the open air, where 
it may be left to cool. 


In the factory of Kast and Bhinger, of Feuerbach-SttittgiBirti, 
the following precautions are taken to prevent accidents 
arising from the oil boihng over. In one apparatus, iihe 
kettle is supported on a frame running on wheels on rails, 
so that, when an iron door in the walled-up hearth is opened, 
a single man can quickly remove it from over the fire. The 
other arrangement is to make the fire movable instead of the 
kettle. The firegrate consists of a wheeled carriage running 
on rails, so that it can be easily moved from under the kettle. 
To get less energetic heating, and to save labour, brown coal is 
used for fuel instead of ordinary coal. 

Boiling Process. 

The process of boiling is as follows : When the kettle has 
been filled about two-thirds full with good long-stocked 
pure linseed oil, it is brought over the fire, or the fire is 
brought under it, and it is heated till it begins to froth. Then 
the fire is increased. When a temperature of 230° to 250° C. 
is reached, as is shown by the oil changing colour almost 
suddenly and becoming a pale greenish yellow, the firing is 
managed so as to keep it at that temperature for about half 
an hour, and it is then increased again. The oil now begins 
to fume strongly with evolution of acrolein, and presently, say 
in from one and a half to two hours from the start, begins 
to froth again. Care is necessary, for the oil is near that 
temperature when it catches fire, and if it froths very much 
it is best to stop the heating for a time. Now the thickening 
of the oils begins and the temperature is kept constant as it 
thickens. The fumes and the acrolein-smell continually in- 
crease, and the danger of the oil igniting spontaneously is 
always present. 

If it does so, with a slight report, the flame is easily put 
out with a damp, not dripping, cloth and a cover, but both 
must be at once removed, and one must be prepared to use 
them again as required. This method of treatment has how- 

printers' inks: vehicles. 191 

ever the drawback that it confines the oontinually increasing 
vapours, as there is no rapid cooling, and it is a better plan 
to put out the flame with a wire grating. A thick wire 
grating on a handle will at once extinguish the flame without 
confining the fumes. If strong frothing occurs before or 
after the oil catches fire, cold oil is added, or better some 
cold already boiled oil, which will not check the incipient 

The progress of the thickening must be tested by taking 
samples from time to time. These samples are taken with 
a spatula and rapidly cooled on an iron plate. The length 
of the threads into which the cooled oil can be drawn and its 
adhesiveness are the signs. It is possible to push the heating 
so far as to get a solid elastic non-adhesive substance, the 
so-called oil-caoutchouc, which however does not concern 

It goes without saying that with an open fire which does 
not allow change of temperature to be made regularly, or 
a uniform temperature to be maintained, a boiling process 
regular under all circumstances is an impossibility, so that 
no times can be stated as required for getting any given 
thickness of the oil : hence the necessity for testing samples 
at intervals, to determine whether the oil wants more heating 
or not. Another cause of this necessity is difierences in the 
oils treated. 

To get exact standards for the thickness of an oil, it is best 
to use the hydrometer, and then by mixing different boilings 
in the proper proportions we can always obtain exactly any 
given thickness required. 

No addition of any kind, driers, resin, etc., should be added 
if the vehicle is to be used or sold as a pure linseed oil. 
It is a question of giving the oil the necessary thickness to 
hold the pigment and to lose the property of making ^easy 
stains. The process above described is necessarily dangerous 
^nd tedious, so that for a long time other materials have been 


used, which have not those drawbacks, it is true, but which 
only give a proper vehicle for certain purposes in the printing 
trade. Among these are : (1) Boiled linseed oil and resin ; (2) 
boiled linseed oil, resin, and resin oil ; (3) raw linseed oil, 
resin and resin oil ; and (4) composition vehicles. 

Vehicles op Linseed Oil and Eesin. 

The basis of these is thick boiled linseed oil, prepared as 
above described. The oil, however, is only boiled till it will 
not grease paper. The thickness then wanting is given by 
the addition of resin, so that a cheaper ink may be made with 
the vehicle. When the oil has been boiled it is left to clear 
for a short time, and then reheated to receive the resin, which 
must be as dry as possible, and broken into smaU pieces. 
These pieces are fused over a gentle fire and then mixed first 
with some resin soap cut up, and when that has dissolved 
with the hot oil. The mass is constantly stirred, left for half 
an hour on the fire till it is very thin, and then filtered through 
a linen cloth to stop all the impurities of the resin. The 
finished vehicle is allowed to deposit all particles too fine to 
be stopped by the cloth, and after a few days is drawn off 
from the sediment. 

The following recipes can be varied according to require- 
ments. Larger quantities of boiled oil can only improve the 
quality of the vehicle by making it stronger and smoother 
and forming a better ink. The numbers mean kilos in all 

Thin. Medium. Thick. 

Resin 25 25 25 

Boiled linseed oil . . . . . 100 100 100 

Resin soap 8 8 8 

Weak boiled oil . . . .7 4 — 

Resin 50 50 50 

Boiled linseed oil 100 100 100 

Besin soap 10 10 10 

Weak boiled oil 9 6 — 


Thin. Medium. Thick. 

Resin . . * 77 77 77 

Boiled linseed oil 100 100 100 

Resin soap 7 7 7 

Weak boiled oil ..... 12 9 — 

Ebsin Oil Vehicles. 

The use of resin oil for this purpose was first proposed in 
1848 by Pratt of New York. His formula is 


Resin oil 20 

Resin 8 

Yellow soap 2 

amalgamated by heat. If the mass is to be thioker, the soap 
and resin are increased, and vice versa, A later recipe is 


Resin oil 50 

Resin 39 

White soap 9 

amalgamated by heat with constant stirring till the mixture 
is quite perfect. The thickness is regulated by increasing 
the amount of soap and resin, or that of the oil. 

Eesin oil first began to be largely used for this purpose in 
1860, when the progress of the resin industry enabled it to 
be more generally employed by producing resin oil of a less 
penetrating odour than was before possible. Newspaper inks 
are now made from resin-oil vehicles almost exclusively, 
although the public often complain about the smell. 

In the manufacture, the resin and the resin oil are heated 
together, the soap being added later. Finally boiled linseed 
oil is added and the whole is kept for a few hours at 120" to 
140° C, to get rid of the smell of the resin oil, and to obtain 
a perfect mixture of the ingredients. In the following recipes 
the quantities are in kilos. 

1. Thin vehicles with boiled Unseed oil. 




Thin boiled Resin BoUed. Resin Resin 
' linseed oil soap linseed oil 


(a) .... 7 3 50 50 25 

(6) .... 9 5 50 50 50 

(c) .... 12 7 50 50 75 

2. Medium vehicles with boiled Unseed oil. 

Thin boiled Resin BoUed Resin Resin 

linseed oil soap linseed oil 


(a) .... 4 S 50 50 25 

(6) .... 6 5 50 50 50 

(c) .... 9 7 50 50 50 

3. Thick vehicles with boiled linseed oil. 

Resin Boiled Resin Resin 
soap linseed oil 

(a) 3 50 50 25 

{b), 6 50 50 60 

(c) 7 50 50 75 

4. Thin vehicles with raw linseed oil. 

Resin Thick Resin Linseed Resin Raw linseed 
turpentine soap oil oil oil 

(a) . — " 2 2 52 96 84 

(6) . 100 — 7 35 95 — 

5. Medium vehicles with raw Unseed oU. 

Resin Resin Thick Linseed Resin Linseed 
soap turpentine oil oil oil 

(a) . . — 6 5 1050 240 210 

(b) . . 100 70 — 3500 80 — 

6. Thick vehicles with raw linseed oil. 

Resin Resin Thick Linseed Resin Linseed 
soap turpentine oil oil oil 

(a) . . — 6 5 87 240 210 

(6) . . 100 7 — 26 80 — 

Composition Vehicles. 

For Fine Work, — 1. Copaiva balsam, 70 kilos. ; ordinary 
Unseed oU, 60 kilos. ; colophony, 110 kilos. ; almond benjamin, 
3 Mlos. ; Tolu balsam, 2 kilos. 

2. Copaiva balsam, 85 kilos. ; ordinary Unseed oil, 40 kilos. ; 
colophony, 115 kilos. ; almond benjamin, 3 kilos. ; Tolu 
balsam, 2 kilos. 

printers' inks: vehicles. 195 

Goyneau's Becipe. — 1. Linseed oil^ 979 parts; resin, 7215 

parts,; Byrup, 245 kilos. ; litharge, 125 kilos. 

2. Linseed oil, 400 kilos. ; resin, 380 kilos.; syrup, 490 
kilos. ; litharge, 60 kilos. 

3. Linseed oil, 980 kilos. ; resin, 958 kilos,; syrup, 980 
kilos. ; litharge, 122 kilos. 

The oil is mixed with the litharge, while a slow fire is kept 
up under the kettle, until the oil begins to swell and to show 
a froth. In the meantime the resin is melted with a little 
linseed oil, and added to the oil when the latter has ceased 
to froth. Then the mass is well stirred, and when it has 
somewhat cooled the syrup is added. 

Savage's Becipe. — 32 kilos, of copaiva balsam are mixed 
with 12 kilos, of resin soap. 

KnecMs Becipe, — 5 kilos, of Venice turpentine, 15 kilos, 
of castor oil, and 1 kilo, of white wax are mixed well together 
over the water bath. 

BosVs Becipe, — 9 kilos, thick turpentine, 10 kilos, of soft 
soap, and 4 kilos, of oleine are mixed together hot. 

Besin Soap Vehicle for Gold Printing, — This composition 
consists of a solution of resin soap with glue and glycerine. 
It is made as follows : — 

We dissolve 50 kilos, of soda in 150 kilos, of water in a 
copper kettle, and raise it to the boil. "We then gradually 
add with continual stirring 100 kilos, of powdered colo- 
phony, and then keep up the boiling for two or three hours, 
or at least until the liquid becomes clear and quite transparent. 
We then allow the liquid to cool, and pour it off from the 
tough brown resin lying at the bottom. We then add 100 
kilos, and 15 kilos, of soaked glue and heat up till everything 
is dissolved. The vehicle thus prepared dries quickly. If it 
is wanted to dry slowly, it is additioned with from 10 to 20 
kilos, of glycerine of 28° B. 

Thenius's Becipe, — Take 25 kilos, linseed oil, 3 kilos, of 
fine litharge, and boil until the linseed oil, on cooling, begins 


to get thick, and then allow to settle. In the meantime melt 
10 kilos, of pale American resin, and add it to the oil, and 
boil for a time longer. Finally add 5 kilos, of coal-tar varnish, 
heat again for a time, and stir till cold. The vehicle must 
be thick and of the consistency of honey. 



As we have already said, black printers* ink consists of 
vehicle and lampblack. When you see the statement in a 
book that it is difficult to say exactly the proper constitution 
of printers* ink, you may be sure that the author is a cautious 
man. Here we shall give precise directions. 

We have now to get our product to mix together vehicle 
and lampblack, a process which was carried out at the 
beginning of the printing art, just as it is now, except that 
the rubbing together is now done by machinery of the best 

On account of the great toughness of the vehicle and the 
great lightness of the lampblack, the mixing of the two is best 
done in a closed mixing machine, such as those described 
earlier in this book. The rubbing up in the machine must 
be very perfect to get a faultless product, such as those of 
Lehmann and others. The finished ink must contain no 
lumps of any kind, and it must have the finest ointment-like 
and uniform consistency, as is only possible with the above- 
named machines, whose suitability for printers' ink has been 
already mentioned. 

The proportion between lampblack and vehicle is various, 
and depends chiefly on the nature and origin of the pigment. 
In general, the finer the lampblack, the less of it is required 
to make a good printing and good covering ink, for the fine 
lampblack always goes farther. The proportion varies from 
21 to 40 parts of lampblack to 100 parts of vehicle, whether 
the ink is to be thin, medium or thick. The quantity of lamp- 


black oannot affect the thickness of the ink, which depends 
mainly on the consistency of the vehicle used. Unfortu- 
nately, manufacturers fall over this wrong notion occasionally 
that they can make a thick ink by putting a lot of lampblack 
to a thin vehicle, and then discover when too late that their 
ink is unusable. 

As an ink with a certain blue- black colour and lustre is 
required for fine illustrations and sumptuous painting, and 
this cannot be got with lampblack alone, these inks also 
contain Prussian blue or indigo, or aniline dyes which have 
been already used with success. Prussian blue and indigo 
being hard pigments, must be subjected to a preliminary 
treatment to enable them to be rubbed up more easily. This 
consists in soaking them for a day or two in 96 per cent, 
spirit, then grinding them, and finally spreading them out to 
allow the alcohol to evaporate. Aniline dyes, principally 
blue and violet, must be soluble in oil, so as to dissolve in the 
varnish without leaving any residue. 

As already mentioned, the proportion of lampblack in the 
ink depends upon the nature of the former, so the recipes now 
about to be given for making printers' ink cannot be regarded 
as correct in all cases, but must be taken as subject to many 

Inks for Kotary Machines. 

Thin. Medium. Thick. 

1. Vehicle 70 72 72 

Lampblack 30 28 28 

2. Vehicle 72 74 74 ' 

''Lampblack 28 26 26 

Inks for Kapid Printing. 
Newspaper Inks. 

Thin. Medium. 

Vehicle 78 76 

Lampblack . , . . , 22 24 


Book Inks, 

Thin. Medium. Thick. 

Vehicle 77 79 80 

Lampblack 23 21 20 

IlltLstration Inks. 

Thin. Medium Thick. 

Vehicle 78 78 78 

Lampblack 20 19 19 

Prussian blue 2 2 1 

Indi'o — 1 — 

Steel blue — — 2 

As we have seen, the vehicle in all the inks is on an un- 
changed basis. It is therefore evident that it is on the quality 
of the lampblack that the beauty and value of the ink chiefly 
depends. It is impossible to incorporate the pigment with 
anything better than the proper amount of pure oil vehicle, 
and this shows that all inks would be of the same quaHty if 
there were no differences in the quality of the lampblack, 
which has the chief influence on the nature of the ink. Hence 
in order to make a newspaper ink at a medium price we must 
use a common lampblack made from tar or paraffin, or in 
some cases from resin, while better lampblack is used for 
book-work, and for illustrations the lampblack is calcined 
several times. For these reasons it is difficult to give formulae, 
and in what follows I will only indicate the usual proportion. 
The true formulsB can be arrived at only by practice. 

Brackenbusoh's Impbovements. 

The object of this inventor is to replace the linseed oil 
vehicle now used in printing-ink manufacture, either altogether 
or with such additions as are required either to lower the 
price or to give some special lustre. These substitutes are 
mixtures of the heavy hydrocarbons and resins, and these 
are cheaper, dry quicker, and give more uniform inks. 

Consistent Black Printers* Ink. — 25 parts of paraffin oil and 
45 of fine colophony are mixed either by melting the resin 


at about 80° C, or by mechanical grinding at the ordinary 
temperature. The mass then receives a further addition of 
15 parts of lampblack. 

Soft Ink for Botary Machines, — In place of the 45 parts 
of fine colophony take 40 only. "With this exception the 
process is the same as the last. 

Jobbing Printers' Ink, — Here the proportions of the first 
recipe are employed, but dammar is substituted for colophony. 

The recipes given must depend on the quality of the raw 
materials used. 

Differences in the resin and hydrocarbon can be corrected 
by alternating the proportion of lampblack present. The 
figures given above, however, are in most cases the best, and 
may be regarded as giving typical normal inks. 

If other colours than black are required the proper amount 
of the suitable pigment is substituted for the lampblack. In 
order to manufacture a specially cheap ink resin oil may be 
substituted for the paraffin, and the colophony may be replaced 
by ordinary resin, Burgundy pitch or pine pitch. Fillings, 
used to increase the volume of the ink, can also be put in to 
a reasonable extent. 

Gunther's Ink. 

This is a black printers' ink which can also be used as an 
etching ground and a stamping colour. The ingredients are 
pitch or asphalt ; the highest fractions of tar oil, or anthracene 
oil, after special preparation ; spirit-soluble aniline, soft soap, 
that made with fish oil being the best for the purpose ; and 
a drying Greenland fish oil. 

These ingredients are mixed together at a temperature of 
60° to 80° C. 

To diminish the unpleasant smell of the green oil it is first 
prepared by being acted on by chlorine at a temperature of 
over 100° C, or by heating with an energetic oxidising agent 
such as nitric acid ; then probably the amido bases are com- 


bined and become less evil-smelling compounds than those 
originally existing as natural constituents of the green oil. 
The oil is then boiled with 5 per cent, of chloride of copper 
to deepen its brown colour. The following proportions have 
proved to be the best : 45 parts of green oil previously heated 
with chloride of copper, 40 of pitch or asphalt, 12 of soap, 5 
to 8 of fish oil, according to the time of the year, and from 
3 to 15 parts of spirit-soluble aniline dye in powder. 

In an earlier patent Gunther protected the following pro- 
cess : The pigment ingredients are pitch or asphalt ; rectified 
ter oil ; mixtures of aniline violet with various fatty acids ; 
and the fatty residue from the distillation of heavy resin oil ; 
these materials are intimately mixed by being stirred together 
with heat and combine readily. The following proportions 
have been found to be good, but may be altered according to 
circumstances : 40 parts of asphalt, 28 of rectified tar oil, 8 
of the fatty aniline violet, and 24 of the resin oil residue. If 
the mass is too thick it is diluted with more tar oil. 

Still another patent of Gunther is concerned with the pre- 
liminary treatment of the heavy tar oil used in making these 
inks, and obtained as a residue in anthracene manufacture. 
The object of this treatment is to give the oil a brownish 
black colour, and the process consists in heating it with about 
10 per cent, of chloride of copper which has previously been 
evaporated to get rid of its excess of acid. The chloride is 
then dissolved in warm water or stirred into the anthracene 
oil. This is then boiled until all the water has evaporated. 
The oil thus acquires a dark brown colour, and therefore 
requires a far smaller amount of aniline violet than would 
otherwise be necessary to give the required tint ; ^ per cent, 
of the dye-stuff is enough. The product then obtained can be 
substituted for the rectified tar oil and aniline violet and can 
be used without any addition as a stamping ink, especially 
for post-oliice work in cancelling postage stamps. 


Dr. Artus's Ink. 

Heat 60 kilos, of Venice pitch gently with 30 kilos, of oleic 
acid, as free as possible from stearine, and carefully rub the 
mixture up with 80 kilos, of soft soap. Then add 50 kilos, 
of calcined lampblack, first passed through a fine hair-sieve, 
and finally a solution of 40 kilos, of Prussian blue and 20 
of oleic acid in 20 of water. Instead of the solution of 
Prussian blue indigo-carmine may be used, and of this 20 
kilos, will be sufficient instead of the 40 of Prussian blue. 
The indigo-carmine must first be thoroughly rubbed up with 
water. Trials of this ink are said to have given very satis- 
factory results, and the ink is considered to be an improve- 
ment on BosFs. 

E6sL*s Ink. 

This consists of 9 parts of Austrian turpentine, 10 of soft 
soap, 4 of oleine, and 4 or more of lampblack. When these 
ingredients have been well mixed by the aid of heat they are 
thoroughly worked up in a paint mill, and the ink is then 
ready. The types are moistened and cleaned by means of a 
sponge dipped in a 1 per cent, solution of soda in water. 

The advantages of this not very original ink in addition to 
its great divisibility, which allows it to be spread very thinly 
over the types, and therefore to give a very clear impression, 
are as follows : 1. It is easily made. 2. The cost of manu- 
facture is one- third less, and the ink goes farther. 3. Its 
durability is such that it can be recovered from old printed 
matter by means of the above solution of soda, and the paper 
pulp can be bleached again for the manufacture of fresh paper 
by the same means. The ink also does away with the use of 
printers' lye, and also obviates the necessity of brushing the 
types. Hence they are not so quickly worn out as when 
ordinary inks are used. 

printers' inks : pigments and manufacture. 203 

Ooal-Tab Inks. 

Heat coal tar over a gentle fire and add, according to 
the degree of toughness to be produced, from 6 to 16 
per cent, of co^opbtotiy, raising the temperature until the 
resin is completely dissolved. Then stir into the mass 
10 per cent, of parafl&n oil, and pass the whole through 
a cloth or fine sieve. Then allow it to cool. Next correct 
the intense smell of the tar and paraffin by stirring in 
a mixture of bleaching powder and hydrochloric acid, 
until the chlorine evolved has destroyed the odour. About 
300 grammes of acid are required for 50 of bleaching 
powder. The bleaching agents may also be advantageously 
added during the mixing of the ingredients, and the sub* 
sequent filtering will get rid of the residual bleaching 
powder. The disinfected vehicle is next heated, and is 
mixed slowly with constant stirring, with 20 to 25 per 
cent, of crude glycerine and 12 to 18 per cent, of lamp- 
black. The resultant paste is then rubbed up in a roller 
paint mill till it is thoroughly fine and uniform. In order 
to combine the glycerine better, and to get the desired 
deep black, bluish black or violet black ink, a little nigro- 
sine, aniline blue or aniline violet is dissolved in the gly- 
cerine by heating on the water bath before it is added to 
the ink. 

According to a supplementary patent, 100 kilos, of coal 
tar are gradually mixed with constant stirring with 2i to 
3 kilos, of sulphuric acid. The mass is then vigorously 
worked up, and gradually heated until it swells. "When 
taken from the fire 1 kilo, of calcined soda is stirred in, 
and the stirring is kept up until the tar is nearly cold. 
Then from 2i to 3 kilos, more of the soda are put in, 
and the mass is replaced on the fire and boiled until the 
tar froths strongly. It is then quickly removed from the 
fire and allowed to become quite cold. 


It should be allowed to remain for a few days, and in 
the meantime it is disinfected with chlorine, either bubbled 
through it by means of a glass tube or generated in it by 
the addition of bleaching powder and hydrochloric acid. 
The black mass is then mixed with from 2^ to 3 kilos, of 
lard and 4 to 5 kilos, of glycerine, or 8 to 10 of soap 
instead of glycerine, the whole being boiled together. 
When the mass is thin, it is filtered through a cloth. 
For finer inks, 2 to 5 kilos, of logwood extract in solution 
can be added to improve the black colour of the ink, and 
any required shade of deep black, blue black or violet black 
ink can be obtained by adding bichromate of potash, alum, 
tartar or copper solution. The filtered black ink is rubbed 
up with from iV to ^ of lampblack. To still further im- 
prove the shade of black, a little aniline black, blue or 
violet, may be dissolved in the glycerine before it is mixed 
with the tar. 

Schmidt Brothers' Ink. 

Ordinary printers' ink consisting of lampblack and lin- 
seed oil can only be removed from paper with dijB&culty 
and never completely, for although the vehicle can be dis- 
solved and removed the lampblack resists all chemical 
agents and solvents. Hence paper printed with such ink 
can never be remade into white paper again. To remedy 
this, the lampblack is replaced by other substances which 
can be removed by various chemical processes. 

In order to make a removable ink, peroxide of manganese, 
a bye-product of many chemical industries, is employed, but 
other oxidised manganese compounds may be substituted, 
such as natural manganite and pyrolusite, with perfect suc- 
cess. The following is the recipe, which must be under- 
stood, however, to be variable according to the destined 
employment of the ink. 

40 kilos, of the manganese compound are mixed with 60 of 

printers' inks : pigments and manufacture. 205 

boiled linseed oil, and finely rubbed up with it. The usual 
substitutes for linseed oil in printing ink manufacture, such 
as soft oleine soap, turpentine, glycerine, resin soap, etc., 
may be used instead, and the usual additions for producing 
a special tint, such as nigrosine, may be employed exactly 
as in ordinary inks. If paper printed with this ink is to 
be remade into white paper it is treated with cold or hot 
solution of carbonate of soda, and the whole is then rinsed 
to get rid of the ink. Any small traces of the manganese 
compound remaining can be removed with hyposulphite of 
soda. The remaining pulp is treated with acid or with the 
vapour of acid, hydrochloric being the best to use, as with 
the traces of manganese still left it develops chlorine, which 
helps to bleach the pulp. 


This is a similar ink to that of Schmidt Brothers^ and the 
patent for it was taken out by Kircher in Austria, Germany 
and America fifteen years ago. It is prepared with sulphu- 
retted hydrogen and compounds of iron, with the special 
purpose of securing an ink which should be removable, and 
allow the paper to be worked up over again. The State 
printing office of Vienna made experiments with it and ob- 
tained good results, but it never came into general use in 
Austria, and I know that the manufactory at Gannstatt had 
to shut down. Kircher employed the following processes : — - 

1. Dissolve a salt of iron in 6 times its bulk of clean 
water, and precipitate it with the sulphide. Wash the pre- 
cipitate well, dry it quickly, and work it up with the vehicle 
in a paint mill. 

2. Mix very fine iron filings with their chemical equivalent 
of sulphur, and fuse in a covered crucible at a gentle heat. 
Grind the cooled residue finely and mix with the vehicle. 

3. Pass sulphuretted hydrogen over ferric oxide in a red- 


hot tube until all action oeases. Mix the contents of the 
tube cold, and finely ground with the vehicle as before. 

4. Eeduce ferric or ferrous sulphate with carbon at not 
too high a temperature, and work the cold mass with the 

Iron Printing and Stamping Inks. 

Ferric or ferrous salts, or metallic iron, are added to the 
printing or stamping inks made with lampblack and linseed 
oil; the iron combines intimately with the cellulose and 
size of the paper, and can be detected there even after all 
visible traces of ink have been removed. 

Thbnius'b Ink. 

Take 25 kilos, of linseed oil and 3 kilos, of fine litharge 
and boil until the oil thickens on cooling. Then allow it 
to settle. Melt also 10 kilos, of light American colophony, 
put it into the thickened oil, heat for a short time longer 
with 5 kilos, of coal-tar oil, and finally stir until cold. The 
coalttar oil is made from the second fraction of the distilla- 
tion of crude coal tar, and has a specific gravity of '85 to 
'89. The first distillate from the tar may also be used, 
mixed with the other, the two combined having a specific 
gravity of •9. To make the oil from the mixture about 
100 kilos, of it are put into a vat, Hned with lead, 
with i kilo, of bichromate of potash, i kilo, of pyrolusite 
and 2 kilos, of pure sulphuric acid. The whole mass is 
stirred continuously for an hour, then allowed to stand for 
a few hours, and the darkened oil is poured off from the 
sediment, which contains the acid and many resinous bodies. 
The oil is washed first with warm water, and next with 
2 per cent, of caustic soda-lye of 5** B., which frees it from 
large quantities of resinous impurities. The finished oil is 
thick, like honey, and is rubbed up with lampblack. 

Or take 10 kilos, of fine, half-calcined oil lampblack, rub 

printers' inks : pigments and manufacture. 207 

it up very fine on the stone and add, gradually, rectified oil 
of turpentine until it becomes a thick paste, then continue 
rubbing until the mass acquires a lustre and is very fine. 
Mix with the same quantity of oil black like the first, but 
with the above coal-tar oil instead of turpentine. Eub 
on the stone 2 kilos, of fine Prussian blue to a very fine 
powder, and add to it i kilo, of powdered siccative, and 
a thick printers* varnish made from coal tar, so as to obtain 
the same thick consistency as before. 



Adulterations of linseed oil, 9, 61. 

Adulterations of boiled linseed oil, 


with colophony, 64. 

fish oil, 66. 

resin oil, 64. 

other adultera- 
tions, 66. 
Air aspirator, 32. 
Andres' boiling apparatus, 188. 
Antimony colours, 74. 
Apparatus for making lampblack 

from oil, 93. 
Arsenic colours, 74. 
Artists' colours, 163. 

Blacks, 166. 

Blues, 166. 

Browns, 166. 

Greens, 166. 

Beds, 166. 

Whites, 166. 

Yellows, 166. 


Barium colours, 74. 
Bisulphide of carbon, 6. 
Black from tar, 113. 

— pigments, 142. 
Blacks for artists, 166. 
Blue pigments, 142. 
Blues for artists, 166. 
Body of pigments, 72. 

Boiling linseed oil over the open 
fire or with steam, 43. 

— point of linseed oil, 8. 
Bonner ball-mill, 117. 
Book inks, 199. 

Brackenbusch's improvements in 

printing inks, 199. 
Brown pigments, 142. 
Browns for artists, 166. 
Bruchhold's weatherproof paint, 


Cadmium colours, 76. 

Calcining lampblack, 110. 

Canadol, 6. 

Carbolic varnish, 70. 

Carbon bisulphide, 6. 

Carmine, 80. 

Cataract machine, 17. 

Cement-boiled oil, 69. 

Centrifugal sifting and winnowing 
machine, 123. 

Chemical preparation of lamp- 
black, 109. 

Chinese drying oil, 68. 

Chromium colours, 76. 

Coal-tar inks, 203. 

Cobalt colours, 78. 

Combret's apparatus, 26. 

Composition of linseed oil, 9. 

— poppy oil, 14. 

— vehicles for printers' inks, 194. 
Consistent black printers' ink, 199. 
Copper colours, 78. 
Cotton-seed oil, and its detection in 

oil paints, 180. 



Dr. Artus's ink, 202. 
Dreyer's apparatus 

lampblack, 96. 
Driers, 34, 36. 

for making 




Bvrard'g process of purifying lin- 
seed oil, 24. 
Experiments with boiled oil, 173. 

pure linseed oil, 172. 

Extraction process for linseed oil, 5. 


Fastness of pigments, 78« 
Frankfort black, 81. 
Freezing point of linseed oil, 7. 
poppy oil, 14. 

Ink, Thenius's, 206. 
Inks, book, 199. 

— coal-tar, 203. 

— for rapid printing, 198. 
rotary machines, 198. 

— illustration, 199. 

Iodine numbers of fatty acids, 12. 

Iron colours, 77. 

—^ printing and stamping inks, 206. 

— ships, paint for, 165. 

Jobbing printers* ink, 200. 


German Society for the Promotion 
of Bational Painting, normal 
pigments of the, 176. 

Glasenapp's black paint, 147. 

Glaser's disintegrator, 120. 

Green pigments, 141. 

Greens for artists, 165. 

Grey colours, 140. 

Grinding pigments, 117. 

Grunzweig's oil paint, 147. 

Gunther's ink, 200. 

High temperatures, to make oil 

colours resist, 147. 
House oil paints, manufacture of, 

Hugoulin's process, 143. 

Illustration inks, 199. 

Indigo, 81. 

Ink, Brackenbusch's, 199. 

— Dr. Artus's, 202. 

— Gunther's, 200. 

^^, iron printing and stamping, 206. 
'— • feircher & Ebner*s, 205. 

— Rosl's, 202. 

— Schmidt Brothers', 204. 

Kallkolith, 149. 

Kircher & Ebner's ink, 205. 

Korting's aspirator, 31. 

Lake colours, 80. 
Lampblack, 83. 

— calcining, 110. 

— chemical preparation of, 109. 

— real, 89. 

— substitutes for, 113. 
Black from tar, 113. 
Tannin black, 115, 

Lead and manganese preparations, 
soluble, 37. 

— colours, 75. 

Lehmann's machine for mixing 

vehicles with pigments, 129. 
Linoleates, 36. 
Linoleic acid, 35. 
Linseed oil, sbdulteration of, 9, 61. 

with colophony, 64. 

fish oil, 66. 

resin oil, 64. 

other adulterations, 


and resin as a vehicle for 

printers' inks, 192. 

boiling, theory of, 40. 

by pressure, 5. 

extraction, 5. 



Linseed oil plant, 4. 
bleaching, 28. 

with peroxide, 29. 

with sulphuric acid, 30. 

with sulphurous acid, 30. 

by the sun, 28. 

boiling point of, 8. 

composition of, 9. 

freezing point of, 7. 

manufacture of boiled, 43. 

Andres* process, 48. 

German patent process, 

Lehmann's superheater, 

Muthel and Ltitke's pro- 
cess, 50. 

Schrader and Dumeke's 
process, 49. 

Vincent's process, 48. 

Walton's process, 48. 

Zimmetmann and Holz- 
wich's process, 54. 

Zwieger's process, 46. 

purification of, 15, 23. 

specific gravity of, 8. 

substitute for, 148. 

^ testing, 10, 62. 

Luminous paint, 156. 


Machinery for grinding and rub- 
bing up pigments, 117. 
Bonner's ball-mill, 117. 
Centrifugal sifting and winnow- 
ing machine, 123. 
Glaser's disintegrator, 120. 
Sieving and mixing ma.chine, 124. 
Machines for purifying linseed oil, 
14, 25. 
Cataract machine, 17. 
Combret's apparatus, 25. 
Oil-refining kettle, 21. 
Rieck's machine, 16. 
Upward oil filter, 19. 
Ure's oil filter, 18. 
Manganese and lead preparations, 

soluble, 87. 
— colours, 79. 
Mercury colours, 79. 

Mixing vehicles with pigments, 125. 

Lehmann's machine, 129. 

Quack's machine, 125. 

Werner and Pfleiderer's ma- 
chine, 127. 
Mussini paints, 174. 


New driers, 36. 
Newspaper inks, 198. 


Oil-refining kettle, 21. 

Oven for burning asphalt, 86. 

resin, etc., 87. 

Oxidising agents for boiled oil 
making, 34. 


Paint fot ships and submarine con- 
structions, 155. 
— mills, 131. 

Peroxide bleaching of linseed oil, 29. 
Pigments for painters, artists and 

printers, 72. 
Plate paint miUs, 133. 
Poppy oil, composition of, 14. 

freezing point of, 14. 

obtained by pressure, 13. 

specific gravity of, 14. 

Printers' inks, 82, 197. 

mixing vehicle and pigment, 

Progress in the manufacture of 

pigments, 1. 
Purification of linseed oil, 15, 23. 

Quack's machine for mixing vehi- 
cles with pigments, 125. 


Rapid printing, inks for, 198. 
Red pigments, 141. 



Reds for artists, 165. 

Kesin oU sis a vehicle for printers' 

ink, 193. 
Bieck's ma.chine, 16. 
Roller paint mills, 184. 
Rdsl's ink, 202. 
Rotary machines, ink for, 198. 


Schmidt Brothers* ink, 204. 

Schnittger's paints, 154, 168. 

Shade of pigments, 72. 

Ship paints, 154. 

Siccative properties of linseed oil, 2. 

Sieving and mixing machine, 124. 

Soft ink for rotary ma.chines, 200. 

Soluble manganese and lead pre- 
parations, 37. 

Specific gravity of linseed oil, 8. 

poppy oil, 14. 

Substitute for linseed or turpentine 
oil, 148. 

Substitutes for lampblack, 113. 

Sulphuric acid bleaching of linseed 
oil, 30. 

Sulphurous acid bleaching of lin- 
seed oil, 30. 

Sun bleaching of linseed oil, 28. 

Tannin black, 116. 
Tar varnish, 70. 
Testing linseed oil, 10. 
Thenius's ink, 206. 
— oven, 86. 
Theory of oil-boiling, 40. 
Tighe's process for making lamp- 
black, 108. 
Turpentine oil, substitute for, 148. 

Universal pigment for use as water, 

oil or lake colour, 146. 
Upward oil filter, 19. 
Ure's oil filter, 18. 


Varnish, carbolic, 70. 

— tar, 70. 

Vehicle and fixer for house paints, 

* 148. 
Vehicles for printers' inks, 184. 

Compositions, 194. 

Linseed oil and resin, 192. 

Resin oil, 193. 


Weatherproof paint, Bruchhold's, 

— — for walls, 144. 

Werner & Pfleiderer's mcbchine 
for mixing vehicles with pig- 
ments, 127. 

White lead pigments, 140. 

Whites for artists, 165. 


Yellows for artists, 166. 
Yellow pigments, 140. 


Zinc colours, 80. 

— white pigments, 140. 



Special Weedniedl 5Boo/is. 


Adhesives 10 

Agricultural Chemistry ... 9 
Air, Industrial Use of ... 10 
Alcohol, Industrial ... 9 

Alum and its Sulphates ... 8 

Ammonia ' 8 

Aniline Colours 3 

Animal Fats 6 

Anti-corrosive Paints ... 4 
Architecture, Terms in ... 22 
Architectural Pottery ... 12 

Artificial Lighting 20 

Artificial Perfumes ... 7 

Balsams 9 

Bleaching Agents, etc. ... 17 

Bone Products 8 

Bookbinding 23 

Brick-making ... 11, 12 

Burnishing Brass 21 

Carpet Yam Printing ... 16 

Casein 4 

Celluloid 23 

Cement 22 

Ceramic Books ... 11, 12 

Charcoal 8 

Chemical Analysis 8 

Chemical Essays 8 

Chemical Reagents ... 8 

Chemical Works 8 

Clays 12 

Coal dust Firing 19 

Colliery Recovery Work... 18 
Colour Matching (Textile) 16 
Colour-mixing for Dyers... 16 

Colour Recipes 3 f 

Colour Theory 16 

Combing Machines ... 17 ' 

Compounding Oils, etc. ... 6 
Condensing Apparatus ... 19 

Cosmetics 7 

Cotton Dyeing 16 

Cotton Spinning ... ... 17 

Cotton Waste 18 

Cranes and Hoists ... 20 

Damask Weavinjg 15 

Dampness in Buildings ... 22 
Decorators' Books ... 4 

Decorative Textiles ... 15 

Dental Metallurgy 18 

Disinfection 9 

Driers 5 

Drugs 22 

Drying Oils 5 

Drying with Air, etc. ... 10 

Dyeing Marble 23 

Dyeing Woollen Fabrics... 17 

Dyers' Materials 16 

Dye-stuifs 17 

Edible Fats and Oils ... 7 
Electric Lamp Develop- 
ment 21 

Electric Wiring 21 

Electricity in Collieries ... 18 

Emery 24 

Enamelling Metal 13 

Enamels 13 

Engineering Handbooks ... 19 



Engraving 23 

Essential I Oils 7 

Evaporating Apparatus .. 19 
External Plumbing ... 20 

Fats 6,7 

Faults in Woollen Goods 15 

Flax Spinning 18 

Food and Drugs 22 

Foundry Machinery ... 20 

Fruit Preserving 23 

Gas and Oil Engines ... 19 

Gas Firing 19 

Glass-making Recipes ... 13 

Glass Painting 13 

Glue-making and Testing... 8 

Greases 6 

Guttapercha 11 

Hat Manufacturing ... 15 

Hemp Spinning 18 

History of Staffs Potteries 12 

Hops 21 

Hot-water Supply ... 21 

India-rubber 11 

India-rubber Substitutes 5 

Inks 3, 4, 5, 9 

Insecticides, etc 21 

Iron-corrosion 4 

Iron, Science of 19 

Iron and Steel Work ... 19 

Japanning 21 

Jute Spinning 18 

Lace-Making 15 

Lacquering 21 

Lake Pigments 3 

Lead 10 

Leather-working Mater'ls 6,1 1 

Libraries 24 

Linoleum 5 

Lithographic Inks 5 

Lithography , 23 

Lubricants 6 

Manures 8, 9 

Meat Preserving 23 

Medicated Soaps 7 

Metal Polishing Soaps ... 7 

Mineral Pigments 3 

Mineral Waxes 6 

Mine Ventilation 18 

Mine Haulage 18 

Mining, Electricity ... 18 

Motor Car Mechanism .. 20 

Needlework ... 15 

Oil and Colour Recipes ... 3 

Oil Boiling ... 5 

Oilmen's Sundries ... 3 I 

Oil Merchants' Manual ... 6 

Oils 5,6,7 

Ozone, Industrial Use of... 10 
Paint Manufacture ... 3 

Paint Materials 3 

Paint-material Testing ... 4 
Paint Mixing ... 3, 4 

Paper-M ill Chemistry ... 13 
Paper-pulp Dyeing ... 13 

Petroleum 6 

Pigments 3, 9 

Plumbers' Books ... 20, 21 t 

Pottery Clays 
Pottery Decorating 
Pottery Manufacture 
Pottery Marks 
Power-loom Weaving 
Preserved Foods 

... 21 
... II 
II, 12 
... 12 
... 14 

Printers' Ready Reckoner 23 
Printing Inks ... 3, 4, 5 

Recipes 3, 13 

Reinforced Concrete ... 19 

Resins 9 

Ring Spinning Frame 
Risks of Occupations 
Riveting China, etc. 
Scheele's Essays ... 
Sealing Waxes 
Shale Oils and Tars 

Shoe Polishes 6 

Silk Dyeing 16 

Silk Throwing, etc. ... 17 

Smoke Prevention 18 

Soap Powders 7 

Soaps 7 

Spinning 15, 17, 18 

Spirit Varnishes 5 

Staining Marble, and Bone 23 

Stain-removing Soaps 
Steam Drying 
Steam Turbines ... 
Steel Hardening ... 
Sugar Technology 



Technical Schools, List ., 

Terracotta , 

Testing Paint Materials ., 

Textile Design 
Textile Fabrics 
Textile Fibres 

Textile MateriaU , 

Timber ... 

Toilet Soapmaking 

Toothed Gearing 


Vegetable Fats and Oils .. 
Vegetable Preserving 

Warp Sizing 

Waste Utilisation 

Water. Industrial Use ... 
Water-proofing Fabrics ... 


Weaving Calculations ... 
White Lead and i^inc 
Wiring Calculations 
Wood Distillation 

Wood Extracts 

Wood Waste Utilisation... 


Wool Dyeing 

Woollen Goods 
Woven Fabrics 
Writing Inks 
X-Ray Work 
Yam Sizing ... 
Yarn Numbering and Test- 
ing 14 

Zinc White Paints 












14. IS 

... 14 

... 14 

... 22 

... 7 

... 19 














... 14 
15, 16, 17 
... 15 
... 9 
... 11 



« RPOAHWAV I linOATP. KONDON. B.C. rEnsrland). 


Of the Books mentioned in tliis ABRIDGED CATALO&UE 
will be found in the following Catalogues of 



Artists' Colours — Bone Products — Butter and Margarine Manufacture— Casein — 
Cements— Chemical Works (Designing and Erection) — Chemistry (Agricultural, Indus- 
trial, Practical and Theoretical) — Colour Mixing— Colour Manufacture — Compounding 
Oils — Decorating — Driers— Drying Oils— Drysaltery — Emery— Essential Oils — Fats 
(Animal, VegetsU>le, Edible) — Gelatines — Glues — Greases — Gums — Inks — Lead — 
Leather — Lubricants — Oils — Oil Crushing — Paints — Paint Mauufacturing — Paint 
Material Testing— Perfumes— Petroleum— Pharmacy— Recipes (Paint, Oil and Colour 
— Resins — Sealing Waxes— Shoe Polishes — Soap Manufacture — Solvents — Spirit 
Varnishes — Varnishes — White Lead — Workshop Wrinkles. 


. Bleaching — Bookbinding — Carpet Yarn Printing — Colour (Matching, Mixing 
Theory)— Cotton Combing Machines— Dyeing (Cotton, Woollen and Silk Goods) — 
Dyers' Materials — Dye-stuffs— Engraving — Flax, Hemp and Jute Spinning and Twisting 
— Gutta-Percha — Hat Manufacturing — India-rubber — Inks — Lace-making — Litho- 
graphy—Needlework—Paper Making — Paper-M ill Chemist — Paper-pulp Dyeing — 
Point Lace— Power-loom Weaving— Printing Inks— Silk Throwirig^Smoke Preven- 
tion — Soaps— Spinning —Textile (Spinning, Designing, Dyeing, Weaving. Finishing 
—Textile Materials— Textile Fabrics— Textile Fibres— Textile Oilsr-Textile Soaps- 
Timber — Water (Industrial Uses) — Water-prooRng — Weaving — Writing Inks— Yams 
Testing, Sizing). 


Architectural Terms — Brassware (Bronzing, Burnishing, Dipping, Lacquering) — 
Brickmaking— Building— Cement Work — Ceramic Industries— China— CkMil-dust Firing 
— Colliery Books— Concrete — Condensing Apparatus — Dental Metallurgy— Drainage— 
Drugs— Dyeing— Earthenware— Electrical Books— Bnamellinsf— Enamels— Engineer- 
ing Handbooks— Evaporating Apparatus— Flint Glass-making— Foods— Food Preserv- 
ing — Fruit Preserving— Gas Engines — Gas Firing — Gearing — Glassware (Painting, 
Riveting) — Hops — Iron (Construction, Science) — Japanning — Lead — Meat Preserving 
— Mines (Haulage, Electrical Equipment, Ventilation, Recovery Work from)— Plants 
(Diseases, Fungicides, Insecticides)— Plumbing Books — Pottery (Architectural. Clays, 
Decorating, Manufacture, Marks on) — Reinforced Concrete — Riveting (Chma, 
Earthenware, Glassware) — Sanitary Engineering — Steam Turbines — Steel (Hardening, 
Tempering) — Sugar — Sweetmeats — ^Toothed Gearing — ^Vegetable Preserving — Wood 
Dyeing— X-Ray Work. 


(Paints, Colours, Pigments and 
Printing Inks.) 

Parry, B.Sc. (Lond.), F.I.C.; F.C.S., and J. H. Coste, F.I.C., 
F.C.S. Demy 8vo. Five Illustrations. 285 pp. Price 108. 6d. 
net. (Post free, 10s. lOd. home ; I Is. 3d. abroad.) 

Handbook for Paint Manufacturers, Merchants - and Painters, 
By J. Cruickshank Smith, B.Sc. Demy 8vo. 

[New- Edition in Preparation, 

F.C.S. Demy 8vo. 380 pp. Price 7s. 6d. net. (Post fre?, 8s. 
home ; 8s. 6d. abroad.) 

Jennison, F.I.C, F.C.S. Sixteen Coloured Plates, showinsr 
Specimens of Eisrhty-nine Coiours, speoiaiiy prepared from 
the RecipM given in the Boole. 136 pp. Demy 8vo. Price 
7s. 6d. net. (Post free, 7s. lOd. home; 8s. abroad.) 

PIGMENTS. Containing Directions for the Manu- 
facture of all Artificial, Artists and Painters' Colours, Enamel, 
Soot and Metaffic Pigments. A text-book for Manufacturers, 
Merchants, Artists and Painters. By Dr. Josef Bersch. 
Translated by A. C. Wright, M.A. (Oxon.), B.Sc. (Lond.). Forty- 
three Illustrations. 476 pp. Demy 8vo. Price 12s. 6d. net.. 
(Post free, 13s. home; 13s. 6d. abroad.) 


Compiled by An Analytical Chemist. 330 pp. Second Revised 
and Enlarged Edition. Demy 8vo. Price 10s. 6d. net. (Post 
free, lls< home ; lis. 3d. abroad.) 


Being a Collection of Practical Recipes for Boot Polishes, 31ues, 
Metal Polishes, Disinfectants, etc., compiled from ♦• Oils, Col- 
ours and Drysalteries *'. Crown 8vo. 130 pages. Price 2s. 6d. 
net. (Post free, 2s. 9d. home ; 2s. lOd. abroad.) 

Edgar Andes. Translated from the German. 215 pp. Crown 
8vo. 56 Illustrations. (Post free, 5s. 4d. home; 
58. 6d. abroad.) 

MODERN PRINTING INKS. A Practical Handbook 
for Printing Ink Manufacturers and Printers. By Alfred Sey- 
mour. Demy 8vo. Six Illustrations. 90 pages. • Price 5s. net. 
(Post free, 5s. 4d. home ; 5s. 6d. abroad.).' 

THEM. For Architects, Painters and Decorators. By 
A. Dbsaint. Artistic Interior Decorator of Paris. The book con- 
tains 100 folio Plates, measuring 12 in. by 7 in., each Plate con- 
taining specimens of three artistic shades. These shades are all 
numbered, and their composition and particulars for mixing are 
fully given at the beginning of the book. Bach Plate is inter- 
leaved with grease-proof paper, and the volume is very artistic- 
ally bound in art and linen with the Shield of the Painters* Guild 
impressed on the cover in gold and silver. Price 21 s. net. (Post 
free, 21s. 6d. home ; 228. 6d. abroad.) 


Norman Brown. Eighty-eight Illustrations. 150 pp. Crown 
8vo. Price 3s. 6d. net. (Post free, 3s. 9d. home and abroad.) 

Brown. Thirty-nine Illustrations. 96 pp. Crown 8vo. Price 
Is. net. (Post free, Is. 3d. home and abroad.) 

WORKSHOP WRINKLES for Decorators, Painters, 
Paperhangers, and Others. By W. N. Brown. Crown 8vo. 
128 pp. Second Edition. Price 2s. 6d. net. (Post free, 28. 9d. 
home; 2s. lOd. abroad.) 

CASEIN. By Robert Scherer. Translated from the 
German by Chas. Salter. Demy 8vo. Illustrated. Second 
Revised English Edition. 160 pp. Price 78. 6d. net. (Post free, 
7s. lOd. home ; 8s. abroad.) 

MATERIALS. By A. C. Wright, M.A. (Oxon.), 
B.Sc. (Lond.). Crown 8vo. 160 pp. Price Ss. net. (Post free, 
5s. 3d. home ; 5s. 6d. abroad.) 

CORROSIVE PAINTS. Translated from the German 
of Louis Edoar Andes. Sixty-two Illustrations. 275 pp. 
Demy 8vo. Price lOs. 6d. net. (Post free, 10s. lOd. home; 
lis. dd. abroad.) 

MANUFACTURE. By M. W. Jones, P.C.S. A 
Book for the Laboratories of Colour Works. 88 pp. Crown 8vo. 
Price 5s. net. (Post free, 58. 3d. home and abroad.) 

For contents of these hookSy see List /. 

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Crown 8vo. 12 Illustrations. 96 pp. Price 2s. 6d. net. (Post 
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PAINTS. Translated from the French of P. Flbury. 
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(Varnishes and Drying Oils.) 

Second, greatly enlarged, English Edition, in three* Volumes, 
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VARNISH MAKING. Demy 8vo. 70 Illustrations. 
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VARNISH MATERIALS. DemySvo. Illustrated. 
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LIQUID DRIERS. By L. E. And^s. Expressly 
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{Analysis of Resins, see page P.) 


(Oils, Fats, Waxes, Greases, Petroleum.) 


Their Origin, Preparation, Properties, Uses and Analyses. A 
Handbook for Oil Manufacturers, Refiners and Merchants, and 
the Oil and Fat Industry in General. By Gborob H. Hurst, 
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World — Their History, Geography and Geology — Annual Pro- 
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Henry Neuberger and Henry Noalhat. Translated from the 
French by J. G. McIntosh. 550 pp. 153 Illustrations. 26 Plates. 
Super Royal 8vo. Price 21s. net. (Post free, 21s. 9d. home; 
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MINERAL WAXES: Their Preparation and Uses. By 
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TION, ETC. By An Expert Oil Refiner. Second 
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Richard Brunner. Translated from the Sixth Gern>an BdiUon 
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Frank F. Sherripp. Second Edition Revised and Enlarged. 
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ANIMAL FATS AND OILS: Their Practical Pro- 
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F.or contents oj these books ^ see List I. 

Preparation, Purification and Employment for Various Purposes, 
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EDIBLE FATS AND OILS : Their Composition, Manu- 
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B.Sc. (Lond.), F.I.C., F.C.S. Second Edition, Revised and 
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SOAPS. A Practical Manual of the Manufacture of 
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TEXTILE SOAPS AND OILS. Handbook on the 
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By Wm. H. Simmons, B.Sc. (Lond.), F.C.S. and H. A. Appleton. 
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Medicated Soaps Stain-removing Soaps, Metal Polishing Soaps, 
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Translated from the German of Dr. TheOdor Koller. Crown 
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D.Sc. (Lond.), F.I.C. Fourteen Engravings. 144 pp. Demy 
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of the most recent Improvements in the Manufactut'e of Fat, 
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SCHEELE. First Published in English in 1786. 
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AND IRON. Their Uses and Applications as Mordants 
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facture and Uses. By Camille Vincent, Professor at the 
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CHEMICAL WORKS : Their Design, Erection, and 
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the Assay of Fuels, Ores, Metals, Alloys, Salts and other Mineral 
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PURITY. Translated from the German of Dr. C. 
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For contents of these books^ see List /. 


SHALE OILS AND TARS and their Products. By 
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INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL. A Practical Manual on the 
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Motive Power. By J. G. McIntosh, Lecturer on Manufacture 
and Applications of Industrial Alcohol at The Polytechnic, 
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Treatise on the Rational Utilisation, Recovery and Treatment of 
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lated from the German of Dr. Karl Dieterich. Demy 8vo. 340 
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MANIFOLDERS, ETC. By Victor Schweizer. 
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Christian. Translated from the German. Crown 8vo. 112 
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(Agricultural Chemistry and Manures.) 


Herbert Ingle, F.I.C, Late Lecturer on Agricultural Chemistry, 
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Third and Revised Edition. 400 pp. 16 Illustrations. Demy 
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CHEMICAL MANURES. Translated from the French 
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(See also Bone Products and Manures^ p. 8.) 

(Writing Inks and Sealing Waxes.) 

INK MANUFACTURE: Including Writing, Cop5ing, 
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SiGMUND Lehnbr. Three Illustrations. Crown Svo. 162 pp. 
Translated from the German of the Fifth Edition. Price 5s. net. 
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Crown 8vo. 96 pp. Price 5s. net. (Post free, 5s. 3d. home ; 
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(Lead Ores and Lead Compounds.) 

Technical and Consulting Chemist. Demy 8vo. 226 pp. Forty 
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NOTES ON LEAD ORES : Their Distribution and Pro- 
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Is. net. (Post free, Is. 3d. home ; Is. 4d. abroad.) 

{White Lead and^Zinc White Paints^ see p. 5.) 

(Industrial Hygiene.) 

VENTION. By Leonard A. Parry, M.D., B.Sc. 
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7s. lOd. home ; 8s. abroad.) 

(Industrial Uses of Air, Steam and 

planations, Formulae, and Tables for Use in Practice. Trans- 
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Two Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 76 pp. Price 5s. net. (Post 
free, 5s. 3d. home ; 5s. 6d. abroad.) 
(See also " Evaporating y Condensing and Cooling Apparatus y"" p. 19.) 

Treatise of their Utilisation and Value in Oil, Grease, Soap, Paint, 
Glue and other Industries. By W. B. Cowell. Twelve Illus- 
trations. Crown 8vo. 85 pp. Price 5s. net. (Post free, 5s. 3d. 
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ALYSIS. By H. DE la Coux. Royal 8vo. Trans- 
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(See Books on Smoke Prevention^ Engineering and Metallurgy y p, 19, etc.) 
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(X Rays.) 

PRACTICAL X RAY WORK. By Frank T. Addyman, 
B.Sc. (Lond.), F.I.C., Member of the Roentgen Society of London ; 
Radiographer to St. George's Hospital ; Demonstrator of Physics 
and Chemistry, and Teacher of Radiography in St. George's 
Hospital Medical School. Demy 8vo. Twelve Plates from 
Photographs of X Ray Work. Fitty-two Illustrations. 200 pp. 
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(India "Rubber and Qutta Percha.) 

English Edition, Revised and Enlarged. Based on the French 
work of T. Seeligmann, G. Lamy Torrilhon and H. Falconnet 
by John Geddes McIntosh. Royal 8vo. 100 Illustrations. 400 
pages. Price 12s. 6d. net. (Post free, 13s. home; 13s. 6d. 

(Leather Trades.) 

Compendium of Practical Recipes and Working Formulae for 
Curriers, Bootmakers, Leather Dressers, Blacking Manufac- 
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Demy 8vo. 165 pp. Price 7s. 6d. net. (Post free, 7s. lOd. home; 
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(Pottery, Bricks, Tiles, Glass, etc.) 

Royal Svo. 440 pages. 260 Illustrations. Price 12s. 6d. net. 
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piled by Experts, and Edited by Chas. F. Binns. Fourth Edition, 
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(Post free, 17s. lOd. home; 18s. 3d. abroad.) 

POTTERY DECORATING. A Description of all the Pro- 
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Translated from the German. Crown Svo. 250 pp. Twenty- 
two Illustrations. Price 7s. 6d. net. (Post free, 7s. lOd. home ; 
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Complete Manual for Pottery, Tile, and Brick Manufacturers. By 
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some Critical Notes by Alfred B. Searle. Demy Svo. 308 
Illustrations. 460 pp. (Post free, 13s. home; 
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Enamelled Terra-cottas, Ordinary and Incrusted Quarries, Stone- 
ware Mosaics, Faiences and Architectural Stoneware. By Leon 
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and W. Moore Binns. With Five Plates. 950 Illustrations in 
the Text, and numerous estimates. 500 pp. Royal 8vo. Price 
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EARTHENWARE. By J. Howorth. Second 
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NOTES ON POTTERY CLAYS. The Distribution, 
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HOW TO ANALYSE CLAY. By H. M. Ashby. Demy 
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A Reissue of 

PORCELAIN. With References to Genuine Specimens, 
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published in 1829.) 265 pp. Demy 8vo. Price 5s. net. (Post 
free, 5s. 4d. home ; 5s. 9d. abroad.) 

A Reissue of 
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Rhead. Demy 8vo. 310 pp. With over Twelve-hundred Illus- 
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For contents of these books, see List III. 


(Glassware, Glass Staining and Painting.) 


British Glass Master and Mixer. Sixty Recipes. Being Leaves 
from the Mixing Book of several experts in the Flint Glass Trade, 
containing up-to-date recipes and valuable information as to 
Crystal, Demi-crystal and Coloured Glass in its many varieties. 
It contains the recipes for cheap metal suited to pressing, blow- 
ing, etc., as well as the most costly crystal and ruby. Second 
Edition. Crown 8vo. Price 10s. 6d. net. (Post free, 10s. 9d. 
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ING. Prefaced with a Review of Ancient Glass. By 
Ernest R. Suppling. With One Coloured Plate and Thirty- 
seven Illustrations. Demy 8vo. 140 pp. Price 7s. 6d. net. 
(Post free, 7s. lOd. home ; 8s. abroad.) 

(Paper Making, Paper Dyeing, and 

Treatise for the use of Papermakers, Paperstainers, Students 
and others. By Julius Erfurt, Manager of a Paper Mill. 
Translated into English and Edited with Additions by Julius 
HUbnbr, F.C.S., Lecturer on Papermaking at the Manchester 
Municipal Technical School. With illustrations and 157 patterns 
of paper dyed in the pulp. Royal Svo, 180 pp. Price 15s. net. 
(Post free, 15s. 6d. home; 16s. 6d. abroad). 

M.A., Ph.D., F.I.C. Royal 12mo. 60 illustrations. 300 pp. 
Price 7s. 6d. net. (Post free, 7s. 9d. home ; 7s. lOd. abroad.) 

PURPOSES. By L. B. Andes., Translated from the 
German. Crown Svo. 48 Illustrations. 250 pp. Price 6s. net. 
(Post free, 6s. 4d. home ; 6s. 6d. abroad.) 

(Enamelling on Metal.) 

Makers, Workers in Gold and Silver, and Manufacturers of 
Objects of Art. By Paul Randau. Second and Revised 
Edition. Translated from the German. With 16 Illustrations. 
Demy Svo. 200 pp. Price 10s. 6d. net. (Post free, lOs. lOd. 
home; lis. abroad.) 


W. Norman Brown. Second Edition, Revised. Crown Svo. 
60 pp. Price ^s. 6d. net. (Post free, 3s. 9d. home ; 3s. lOd. 
abroad.) [y«^^ publishe' 


(Textile and Dyeing Subjects.) 

Worsted, Union and other Cloths). By Roberts Beaumont, 
M.Sc, M.I. Mech.E., Professor of Textile Industries, the Univer- 
sity of Leeds ; Author of " Colour in Woven Design " ; •♦ Woollen 
and Worsted Cloth Manufacture " ; ** Woven Fabrics at the 
World's Fair " ; Vice-President of the Jury of Award at the Paris 
Exhibition, 1900 ; Inspector of Textile Institutes ; Society of 
Arts Silver Medallist ; Honorary Medallist of the City and Guilds 
of London Institute. With 150 Illustrations of Fibres. Yarns 
and Fabrics, also Sectional and other Drawings of Finishing 
Machinery Demy 8vo. 260 pp. Price 10s. 6d. net. (Post free, 
10s. lOd. home; lis. 3d. abroad.) 

DUSTRIES. By C. Ainsworth Mitchell, B.A. 
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tions specially drawn direct from the Fibres. Demy 8vo. 
200 pp. Price 7s. 6d. net. (Post free, 7s. lOd, home ; 8s. abroad.) 

scription of all the Materials used in Dressing Textiles : Their 
Special Properties, the preparation of Dressings and their em- 
ployment in Finishing Linen, Cotton, Woollen and Silk Fabrics. 
Fireproof and Waterproof Dressings, together with the principal 
machinery employed. Translated from the Third German 
Edition of Friedrich Polleyn. Demy 8vo. 280 pp. Sixty 
Illustrations. Price 7s. 6d. net. (Post free, 7s. lOd. home ; 
8s. abroad.) 

FIBRES : Their Origin, Structure, Preparation, Wash- 
ing, Bleaching, Dyeing, Printing and Dressing. By Dr. Georo 
VON Georgievics. Translated from the German by Charles 
Salter. 320 pp. Forty-seven Illustrations. Royal 8vo. Price 
10s. 6d. net. (Post free, lis. home ; lis. 3d. abroad.) 

ING, According to Various Systems, with Conversion 
Tables. Translated from the German of Anthon Gruner. With 
Twenty-8ix Diagrrams In Colours. 150 pp. Crown 8vo. Price 
7s. 6d. net. (Post free, 7s. 9d. home ; 8s. abroad.) 

VERSION INTO YARNS. (The Study of the Raw 
Materials and the Technology of the Spinning Process.) By 
Julius Zipser. Translated from German by Charles Salter. 
302 Illustrations. 500 pp. Demy 8vo. Price 10s. 6d. net. 
(Post free, lis. home ; lis. 6d. abroad.) 

For contents of these books, see List II, 


Weaving and Designing Master, Bolton Municipal Technical 
School. Demy 8vo. 280 pp. 490 Illustrations and Diagrams. 
Price 6s. net. (Post free, 6s. 4d. home ; 6s. 6d. abroad.) 

LACE. A Manual of Applied Art for Secondary Schools 
and Continuation Classes. By M. E. Wilkinson. Oblong 
quarto. With 22 Plates. Bound in Art Linen. Price 3s. 6d. 
net. (Post free, 3s. lOd. home ; 4s. abroad.) 

HOME LACE-MAKING. A Handbook for Teachers and 
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Plates and 9 Diagrams. Price Is. net. (Post free, Is. 3d. home ; 
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Lectures delivered before the Hat Manufacturers' Association. 
By Watson Smith, F.C.S., F.I.C. Revised and Edited by 
Albert Shonk. Crown 8vo. 132 pp. 16 Illustrations. Price 
7s. 6d. net. (Post free, 7s. 9d. home ; 7s. lOd. abroad.) 

TEXTILE FABRICS. With Reference to Official 
Specifications. Translated from the German of Dr. J. Herzfeld. 
Second Edition. Sixty-nine Illustrations. 200 pp. Demy 8vo. 
Price 10s. 6d. net. {Post free, 10s. lOd. home; lis. abroad.) 


By R. T. Lord. For Manufacturers and Designers of Carpets, 
Damask, Dress and all Textile Fabrics. 200 pp. Demy 8vo. 
132 Designs and Illustrations. Price 7s. 6d. net. (Post free, 
7s. lOd. home; 8s. abroad.) 

ING. By H. KiNZER and K. Walter. Royal 8vo. 
Eighteen Folding Plates. Six Illustrations. Translated from 
the German. 110 pp. (Post free, 9s. home; 
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Nicolas Reiser. Translated from the Second German Edition. 
Crown 8vo. Sixty-three Illustrations. 170 pp. Price 5s. net. 
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especially relating to Woollens. From the German of N. 
Reiser. Thirty-four Illustrations. Tables. 160 pp. Dem. 
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and E. MiDGLEY. Demy Svo. About 200 pages [In the press. 


ZiNSKi. ' Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged. Crown 8vo. 
140 pp. 29 Illus. Price 5s. net. (Post free, 5s. 4d. home ; 
5s. 6d. abroad.) [7ust published. 

John Mackie. Crown 8vo. 76 pp. Price 3s. 6d. net. (Post 
free, 38. 9d. home ; 3s. lOd. abroad.) 

BRANCHES. Translated from the German of Carl 
Krbtschmar. Royal 8vo. 123 Illustrations. 150 pp. Price 
10s. 6d. net. (Post free, 10s. lOd. home; lis. abroad.) 

{For '« Textile Soaps and Oils " see p. 7.) 

(Dyeing, Colour Printing, Matching 
and Dye-stuffs.) 


Manual for Colour Chemists and Textile Printers. By David 
Paterson, F.C.S. Seventeen Illustrations. 136 pp. Demy 
Svo. Price 7s. 6d. net. (Post free, 7s. lOd. home ; 8s. abroad.) 

intended for the use of Dyers, Calico Printers and Colour 
Chemists. By David Paterson, F.C.S. Forty-one Illustrations. 
Five Coloured Piates, and Four Plates showingr Eleven Dyed 
Speoimens of Fabrics. 132 pp. Demy8vo. Price 7s. 6d. net. 
(Post free, 7s. lOd. home ; 8s. abroad.) 

DYERS' MATERIALS : An Introduction to the Examina- 
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stances used in Dyeing, Printing, Bleaching and Finishing. By 
Paul Heerman, Ph.D. Translated from the German by A. C. 
Wright, M.A. (Oxon)., B.Sc. (Lond.). Twenty-four Illustrations. 
Crown 8vo. 150pp. Price (Post free, 5s. 4d. home; 
5s. 6d. abroad.) 

intended for the use of Students of Colour Chemistry, Dyeing and 
Textile Printing. By David Paterson, F.C.S. Coloured Frontis- 
piece. Twenty-nine Illustrations and Fourteen Specimens Of 
Dyed Fabrics. Demy 8vo. 132 pp. Price 7s. 6d. net. (Post 
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COLOUR. By George H. Hurst, F.C.S. With Ten 
Coloured Plates and Seventy-two Illustrations. 160 pp. Demy 
8vo. Price 7s. 6d. net. (Post free, 7s. lOd. home ; 8s. abroad.) 
Reissue of 

COTTON. Translated from the French of M. Hellot, 
M. Macquer and M. le Pileur D*Apligny. First Published in 
English in 1789. Six Plates. Demy Svo. 446 pp. Price 5s. net. 
(Post free, 5s. 6d. home ; 6s. abroad.) 

For contents of these books^ see List II, 


Von Georoibvics. Translated from the Second German Edition. 
412 pp. Demy 8vo. Price 10s. 6d. net. (Post free, lis. home;, 
lis. 6d. abroad,) 

Handbook for the Dyer and Student. By Franklin Bbbch,. 
Practical Colourist and Chemist. 272 pp. Forty-four Illus- 
trations of Bleaching and Dyeing Machinery. Demy 8vo. Price 
78. 6d. net. (Post free, 73. lOd. home; Ss. abroad.) 

Franklin Beech, Practical Colourist and Chemist. Thirty- 
three Illustrations Demy 8vo. 228 pp. Price 7s. 6d. net. 
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(Silk Manufacture.) 

NING. By HoLLiNS Rayner. Demy 8vo. 170 pp. 
117 lUus. Price 5s. net! (Post free, 5s. 4d. home ; 5s. 6d. abroad.^ 

(Bleaching and Bleaching Agents.) 


By L. Tailfer, Chemical and Mechanical Engineer. Trans- 
lated from the French by John Gbddes McIntosh. Demy 8vo. 
303 pp. Twenty Illus. Price 125. 6d.. net. (Post free, 13s, 
home; 13s. 6d. abroad.) 
GENTS. By Professor Max Bottler. Translated 
from the German. Crown 8vo. 16 Illustrations. 160 pages. 
Price 5s. net. (Post free, 5s. 3d. home ; 5s. 6d. abroad.) 

(Cotton Spinning, Cotton Waste and 
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COTTON SPINNING (First Year). By Thomas 
Thornley, Spinning Master, Bolton Technical School. 160 pp. 
84 Illustrations. Crown 8vo. Second Impression. Price 3s^ 
net^ (Post free, 3s. 4d. home; 3s. 6d. abroad.) 

COTTON SPINNING (Intermediate, or Second Year). 
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COTTON SPINNING (Honours, or Third Year). By 
T. Thornley. 216 pp 74 Illustrations. Crown 8vo. Second 
Edition. Price 5s. net. (Post free, 5s. 4d. home; 5s. 6d. abroad. ^ 

ley, Spinning Master, Technical School, Bolton. Demy 8vo. 
117 Illustrations. 300 pp. Price 7s. 6d. net. (Post free, 8s« 
home ; 8s. 6d. abroad ) 


COTTON WASTE : Its Production, Characteristics 
Regulation, Opening, Carding, Spinning and Weaving. By Thomas 
Thornley. DemySvo. 286 pages. 60 Illustrations. Price 7s 6d. 
net. (Post free, 7s. lOd. home ; 8s. abroad.) 

Crown 8vo. 76 pages. Price 3s. net. (Post free, 3s. 3d. home ; 
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(Flax, Hemp and Jute Spinning.) 

AND TWISTING. A Practical Handbook for the use 
of Flax, Hemp and Jute Spinners, Thread, Twine and Rope 
Makers. By Herbert R. Carter, Mill Manager, Textile Expert 
and Engineer, Examiner in Flax Spinning to the City and Guilds 
of London Institute. Demy 8vo. 1907. With 92 Illustrations. 
200 pp. Price 7s. 6d. net. (Post free, 7s. 9d. home ; 8s. abroad.) 

(Collieries and Mines.) 

Lamprecht, Mining Engineer and Manager. Translated from 
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six Illustrations. 175 pp. Demy 8vo. Price 10s. 6d. net. (Post 
free. 10s. lOd. home; lis. abroad.) 

Mining Engineer. Translated from the German. Royal Svo. 
Thirty Plates and Twenty-two Illustrations. 240 pp. Price 
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IN MINES. By Carl Volk. Translated from the 
German. Royal Svo. With Six Plates and 148 Illustrations. 
150 pp. Price 88. 6d. net. (Post free, 9s. home ; 9s. 3d. abroad.) 


By W. Galloway Duncan, Electrical and Mechanical Engineer, 
Member of the Institution of Mining Engineers, Head of the 
Government School of Engineering, Dacca, India; and David 
Penman, Certificated Colliery Manager, Lecturer in Mining to 
Fife County Committee. Demy 8vo. 310 pp. 155 lUus. and Dia- 
grams. Price 10s. 6d. net. (Post free, lis. home ; lis. 3d. abroad.) 

(Dental Metallurgy.) 

DENTS AND DENTISTS. By A. B. Griffiths, 
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(Engineering, Smoke Prevention and 

the Economical Combustion of Fuel. By W. C. Popplewell, 
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For contents of these books, sec Lists II and III. 


of the Various Appliances Patented in Germany for this purpose 
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Reiser. Translated from the German of the Third Edition. 
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Constitution of Iron Alloys and Slags). Translated from 
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APPARATUS. Explanations, Formulae and Tables 
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by A. C. Wright, M.A. (Oxon.), B.Sc, (Lond.). With Twenty- 
one Illustrations and Seventy-six Tables. 400 pp. Demy 8vo. 
Price 10s. 6d. net. (Post free, lis. home; lis. 6d. abroad.) 

(The '* Broadway" Series of Engineering 

Uniform in Size : Narrow Crown 8vo. (Pocket Size.) 


EwART S. Andrews, B.Sc. Eng. (Lond.). 200 pages. With 57 
Illustrations. Numerous Tables and Worked Examples. Price 
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K1R8CHKE. Translated and Revised from the German, and 
adapted to British practice. 160 pages. 55 Illustrations. 
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TIONAL WORK. By K. Schindler. Translated 
and Revised from the German, and adapted to British practice. 
140 pages. 115 Illustrations. Price 3s. 6d. net. (Post Irec, 
3s. 9d. home ; 4s. abroad.) 

Volume IV.— TOOTHED GEARING. By G. T. White, 
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(Post free, 3s. 9d. home ; 4s. abroad.) 

Volume V.— STEAM TURBINES : Their Theory and 
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trations. Price 3s. 6d. net. (Post free, 3s. 9d. home ; 4s. abroad. > 


Volume VI.— CRANES AND HOISTS. Their Con- 
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German ; revised and adapted to British practice. 168 pages. 
399 Illustrations. Price 3s. 6d. net. (Post free, Ss. 9d. home; 
4s. abroad.) [7 ust published. 

Treibbr. Translated from the German ; revised and adapted to 
British practice. 148 pages. 51 Illustrations. Price 3s. 6d. net. 
(Post free, 3s. 9d. home ; 4s. abroad.) [J ust published. 

W. B. DOMMETT, A.M.I.A.B.B. 200 pages. 102 Illustrations. 
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[^ust published. 

B^ A. Blok, B.Sc, A.M.I.B.E. 240 pages. 124 Illustrations and 
Diagrams, and 1 Folding Plate. Price 3s. 6d. net. (Post free, 
38. 9d. home ; 4s. abroad.) [ynst published. 


Andrews, B.Sc. Eng. (Lond.), and H. Bryon Heywood, D.Sc. 

HYDRAULICS. By E. H. Sprague, A.M.I.C.E. 

LAND SURVEYING. By M. T. Ormsby, Mrl.C.E.I. 

PORTLAND CEMENT. Its Properties and Manu- 
facture. By P. C. H. West, F.C.S. 


LATHES. By G. W. Burley. 

Alban H. Scott, M.S.A., M.C.I. 



ING. By W. C. Cocking, M C.I. 

GEAR GUTTING. By G. T. White, B.Sc. (Lond.). 

Meade, A.M.I.E.E. 


OTHER METHODS. By E. H. Sprague, A.M.I.C.E. 


(Sanitary Plumbing, Electric Wiring, 
Metal Work, etc.) 

Lead Work for Roofs. By John W. Hart, R.P.C. 180 Illustra- 
tions. 272 pp. Demy 8vo. Second Edition Revised. Price 
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For contents of these books^ see List III. 


Revised and Corrected, By John W. Hart, R.P.C. 184 Illus- 
trations. 313 pp. Demy 8vo. Price 7s. 6d. net. (Post free, 
88. home ; 8s. 6d. abroad.) 

John W. Hart. Demy 8vo. With 208 Illustrations. 250 pp. 
1904. Price 7s. 6d. net. (Post free, 7s. lOd. home; 8s. abroad.) 

Walker, R.N., M.I.E.E., M.I.Min.E., A.M.Inst.C.E., etc., etc. 
Crown 8vo. 150 pp. With Illustrations and Tables. Price 58. 
net. (Post free, 5s. 3d. home ; 5s. 6d. abroad.) 

ING BRASS WARE. By W. Norman Brown. 48 pp. 
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ELECTRIC LAMP. By G. Basil Barham, A.M.I.B.E. 
Demy 8vo. 200 pages. 2 Plates. 25 Illustrations and 10 Tables. 
Price 5s. net. (Post free, 5s. 4d. home ; 5s. 6d. abroad.) 

Practic&l Handbook containing Wiring Tables, Rules, and 
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and Electricians, Wiring Contractors and Wiremen, etc. By G. 
W. LuMMis Paterson. Crown 8vo. 96 pages. 35 Tables. 
Price 5s. net. (Post free, 5s. 3d. home ; 5s. 6d. abroad.) 

Tinware, and Wood, etc. Bv William Norman Brown. 
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John W. Hart, R.P.C. With 129 Illustrations. 177 pp. Demy 
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(Brewing and Botanical.) 

ARTICLE OF COMMERCE. By Emmanuel Gross, 
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Translated from the German. 78 Illus. 340pp. Demy 8vo. Price 
10s. 6d. net. (Post free, lis. home; lis. 6d. abroad.) 

KILLERS. By E. BouRCART, D.Sc. Translated from 
the French. Revised and Adapted to British Standards and 
Practice. Demy 8vo. 450 pages, 83 Tables, and 12 Illustrations. 
Price 128. 6d. net. (Post free, 13s. home ; 13s. 6d. abroad.) 

(For Agricultural Chemistry ^ see p. 9.) 


(Wood Products, Tfmber and Wood 

TRACTS. By P. DuMESNY, Chemical Engineer, 
Expert before the Lyons Commercial Tribunal, Memoer* of the 
International Association of Leather Chemists; and J. NCyer. 
Translated from the French by Donald Grant. Royal 8vo. 
320 pp. 103 Illustrations and Numerous Tables. Price 10s. 6d. 
net; (Post free, lis. hoijie ; 11^. 6d.^abroad.) 

TIMBER: A Comprehensive Study of Wood in all its 
Aspects (Commercial and Botanical)^ showing- the different 
Applications and Uses of Tijnber in Various Traaes, etc. Trans- 
lated from the French of Paul Charpentier. Royal 8vo. 437 
pp. 178 Illustrations. Price 12s. 6d. net. (Post free, 13s. 
home ; 14s. abroad.) 

lated from the German of Ernst Hubbard. Crown 8vo. 192 pp. 
50 lUus. Price 5s. net. (Post free, 5s, 4d. home ; 5s. 6d. abroad.) 
{See also Utilisation of Waste Products^ p. 9.) 

(Building and Architecture.:) 

Wheatley. Demy 8vo. 83 Illustrations. 128 pp. Price 5s. 
net. (Post free, 5s. 4d. hortie ; 5s. 6d. abroad.) 

INGS; with Remarks on the Causes, Nature and 
Effects of Saline, Efflorescences and Dry-rot, for Architects, 
Builders, Overseers, Plasterers, Painters and iHopse Owners. 
By Adolf Wilhelm Keim. Translated from the German of the 
second revised Edition by M. J. Salter, F.I.C, F.C.S. Eight 
Coloured Plates and Thirteen Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 115 
pp. Price 5s. net. (Post free, 5s. 3d. home ; 5s. 4d. abroad.) 

tine C. Passmore. Demy 8vo. 380 pp. Price 7s, 6d. net. 
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(Foods, Drugs and Sweetmeats.) 

FOOD AND DRUGS. By E. J. Parry, B.Sc., F.I.C;, F.C.S. 
Volume 1. The Analysis of Pood and Drugs (Chemical and 
Microscopical). Royal 8vo. 724 pp. Price 21 s. net. (Post 
free, 21s. 6d. home ; 22s. 6d. British Colonies; 23s. 3d. other 
Foreign Countries.) 
Volume II. The Sale of Food and Drugs Acts, 1875-1907. 
Royal 8vo. 184 pp. Price 7s. 6d. net. (Post free, 7s. lOd. 
home ; Ss. abroad,) 

For contents of these books, see List III. 


AND SWEETMEATS. By A. Hausner. With 

Twenty-eight Illustrations. Translated from the German of the 
third enlarged Edition. Second English Edition. Crown 8vo. 22& 
pp. Price 7s. 6d. net. (Post free, 7s. 9d. home ; 7s. lOd. abroad.) 

Translated from the German. Crown 8vo. 125 pp. With 14 
Illustrations. Price 5s. net. (Post free, 5s. 3d. home ; 5s. 4d. 

(Dyeing Fancy Goods.) 

OF WOOD. A Practical Handbook for the Use of 
Joiners, Turners, Manufocturers of Fancy Goods, Stick and 
Umbrella Makers, Comb Makers, etc. Translated from the 
German of D. H. Soxhlet, Technical Chemist. Crown 8vo. 
168 pp. Price 5s, net. (Post free, 5s. 3d. home ; 5s. 4d. abroad.) 


CELLULOID : Its Raw Material, Manufacture, Properties 
and Uses. A Handbook for Manufacturers of Celluloid and 
Celluloid Articles, and all Industries using Celluloid ; also for 
Dentists and Teeth Specialists. By Dr. Fr. B5ckmann, Tech- 
nical Chemist. Translated from the Third Revised German 
Edition. Crown Svo. 120 pp. With 49 Illustrations. Price Ss. 
net. (Post free, 5s. 3d. home ; 5s. 4d. abroad.) 

(Lithography, Printing and 


[In the press* 

Victor Graham. Crown 8vo. 112 pp. 1904. 
(Post free, 3s. 9d. home ; 3s. lOd. abroad.) 

72 pp. Two Plates and 6 Illustrations. Crown Svo. Price 
2s. 6d. net. (^ost free, 2s. 9d. home ; 2s. lOd. abroad.) 
{For Printing Inks, see p, 4.) 


Translated from the German. Crown Svo. ISO pp. 127 Illus- 
trations. Price 5s. net. (Post free, 5s. 4d. home ; 5s. 6d. abroad. 


(Sugar Refining.) 

THE TECHNOLOGY OP SUGAR: Practical Treatise 
on the Modern Methods of Manufacture of Sugar from the Sugar 
Cane and Sugar Beet. By John Gbddbs McIntosh. Second 
Revised and Enlarged Edition. Demy 8vo. Fully Illustrated. 
436 pp. Seventy. six Tables. 1906. Price 10s. 6d. net. (Post 
free, lis. home; lis. 6d. abroad.) 

{Sie ** Evaporating, Condensing^ etc., Apparatus" p. 19.) 


lated from the German of A. Haenig. Crown 8vo. 45 Illus. 
104 pp. Price 5s. net. (Post free» 5s. 3d. home ; 5s. 6d. abroad.) 

(Libraries and Bibliography.) 

MERCIAL BOOKS. Compiled by Edgar Green- 
wood. Demy 8vo. 224 pp. 1904. Being a Subject-list of the 
Principal British and American Books in Print; giving Title, 
Author, Size, Date, Publisher and Price. Price 5s. net. (Post 
free, 5s. 4d. home ; 5s. 6d. abroad.) 

KINGDOM. Containing particulars of nearly 1,000 
Technical, Commercial and Art Schools throughout the United 
Kingdom. With full particulars of the courses of instruction, 
names of principals, secretaries, etc. DemySvo. 150 pp. Price 
3s. 6d. net. (Post free, 3s. lOd. home; 4s. abroad.) 

LERIES YEAR BOOK, 1910-11. Being the Third 
Edition of Greenwood's '♦ British Library Year Book ". Edited 
by Alex. J. Philip. Demy 8vo. 286 pp. Price 5s. net. (Post 
free, 5s. 4d. home ; 5s. 6d. abroad.) 

ANNUAL FOR 1911. The Trade Reference Book 
for Plumbers, Sanitary, Heating and Lighting Engineers, 
Builders' Merchants, Contractors and Architects. Including 
the translation of Hermann Recknagel's '* Kalender fur Gesund- 
heits - Techniker," Handbook for Heating, Ventilating, and 
Domestic Engineers, of which Scott, Greenwood & Son have 
purchased the sole right for the English Language. Quarto. 
Bound in cloth and gilt lettered. Price 3s. net. (Post free, 
3s. 4d. home ; 3s. 8d. abroad.) 

Scott, (3reenwoob d Son, 

Technical Book and Trade Journal Publishers, 

8 Broadway, Ludgate, London, E.G. 

Telegraphic Address, "Printeries, Cent. -London**. yanuary, 1914. 

.„ desk from which borrowed. 

MAY 21 1948 


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